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Automobile Basics Pdf

Electronics are being used now in the automobile and probably will be . illustrate the engine fundamentals with an example engine configuration from. Presentation about automobile basics. AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY (BASICS ) Mahindra Institute of Learning Excellence SALES. Basics of Automotive Technology. Body Shapes in Toyota Vehicles. Vehicle Body . Engine Components and Technologies. Vehicle Performance.

Question 1. Question 2. What Is Kingpin Offset? State Some Of Its Application. Answer : The kingpin offset is the part, basically called as pivot used in the steering of the vehicles. Applications: This is also used to measure scrub radius with the help of geometric parameters of wheel plane above and below ground level. It provides directional stability to the vehicles when it i combined with the caster. Question 3. The full form of BS is bharat stage, which is a standard of emission in India. Question 4. Why It Is Used? Answer : Injector pressure i s the pressure at which the fuel can be injected into the vehicle. It is used to set up the standard fuel injection in the vehicles. With the help of injector pressure we can calculate the amount of fuel needed, through the following formula: Est. Horsepower x B.

Question 9. Answer : This will result in damaging of the engine faster. Adding oil will lead to the higher wear and tear of the cylinder liner, piston and damage to the piston. It will lead to abnormal combustion and knocking and detonation.

Dark smoke and abnormal sounds will be generated by the engine. One should not mix oil with the fuel of four stroke engine. Question Answer : In case of two stroke engine, rotation of crank shaft will be power stroke for every two rotations. During compression stroke, fuel will flow towards the crank case suction and during power stroke, exhaust will emit the burnt fuel through the transfer ports.

While in case of four stroke engine, rotation of crank shaft will be power stroke for every four rotation. Moreover, suction compression power and exhaust strokes are separate as there will be inlet and exhaust valves.

Outline of automobiles - Wikipedia

Where It Can Be Used? Answer : It is generally used in spray painting of very small areas. It can be used where painting with brush is very difficult. Usually reciprocating compressors are used but size depends on requirements. Answer : The two stroke engines have very high range to be compared to the four stroke engines. Because power stroke is generated every two revolution while in four stroke, power stroke is generated every four revolutions.

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Answer : The meaning of CC is cubic centimeters. It represents the total volume of the engine cylinder. Vehicle Performance. Many automobile dealers and others sell optional contracts.

Not all service. I am here sharing the pdf for Basics of automobile as per the syllabus of Mechanical branch engineering students. This ebook for Basics of.

Throughout the era of high economic growth, the Japanese automobile parts industry transition engulfing the automobile parts manufacturing industry can be. PDF: This book is available in PDF for free, and it can be reproduced, shared and sold for Automobiles are big and heavy with lots of mechanical moving parts.

When the pressure exceeds 1. When the engine cools down , the vacuum valve opens and let in air so that the radiator does not collapse inwards due to vacuum. Cooling fan speed is dependent on engine speed. However, the speed of the fan is controlled by a viscous clutch based on the radiator temperature. The hot engine oil is passed through the inside of the oil cooler and a relatively cool coolant flows on the outside.

Clutch actuation mechanism can be classified as: A gear reduction multiplies the engine torque by the gear ratio amount.

Torque requirement at the wheel depends operating conditions. For example: To move a vehicle from standstill requires much more torque than the peak torque of the engine.

Hence the torque is multiplied by the first gear ratio. Once the vehicle is started and moved using first gear, it requires less torque at the wheels to keep it moving.

Hence it requires no multiplication or very less multiplication. If the vehicle suddenly encounters a gradient , it will require more torque at the wheels to keep the vehicle moving.

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Hence a intermediate ratio is required. The gear shifting mechanism inside the gear box can be broadly classified as: This requires that the vehicle is stationary when the gears are shifted, Hence sliding mesh is obsolete and is used only in First Gear or Reverse gear. Synchronisation mechanism can be classified as: All forward gears except First need to have synchronisers Synchroniser mechanism are of different designs: HIGH - 1: Allows both wheels to rotate at different speeds to avoid tyre slippage during cornering.

The vehicle load is taken up by the rear axle housing. Radial tyres have low rolling resistance and hence the fuel efficiency of the vehicle improves. Radial tyres also provide softer ride due to the softer side walls. SPRINGS - Springs are mounted at each wheel and they absorb the road shocks created when the vehicle travels over potholes or speed breakers. Springs are of various types, namely: Leaf springs - Leaf springs are multi-layered steel plates clamped together. Coil springs - Coil springs are made of thick steel wires wound in a spring form - Scorpio Front, Bolero Front Torsion bar - Torsion bar are long steel rods of either circular or square cross section.

The springing action is generated by the torsional forces when the torsion bar is twisted - Scorpio 4WD Front While absorbing the shock , the spring is compressed. However, due to the characteristic of springs, the absorbed shock will be released immediately with the rebound of the spring. Hence , the vehicle will start oscillating after encountering a road irregularity.

Outline of automobiles

The purpose of the shock absorber is to absorb the shocks when the spring starts oscillating, thus providing a smooth ride. Stabilizers bar acts as torsion bars and twist , restricting the excessive body roll. Road irregularities encountered by one wheel is absorbed by that wheel only.

In case of failure of the source of power, the steering system reverts to manual steering. Power source for the steering can be: Hydraulic power - Hydraulic pressure generated by a power steering pump, driven by the engine. Electric power - An electric motor driven by the vehicle electrical system and controlled by a an ECU. The tie rods are connected to the wheels which turn either left or right.

Various types of steering gear box designs are available. Generates hydraulic pressure and directs it to the steering gear box. Since the power steering pump is driven by the engine, the pump speed increases as the engine speed increases. Increase in the engine speed generates more pressure of the power steering fluid. This is not desirable as the steering becomes softer and softer as the vehicle speed increases, leading to difficulty in controlling the vehicle. This is known as speed sensitive power steering.

The tandem master cylinder has 2 compartments for safety. Each compartment is connected separately and independently to either front or rear wheel brakes. Failure of one circuit leakage will lead to brake failure in that particular axle. The vehicle can be brought to stop with the working brakes in the other axle, with higher pedal effort. The brake liners are operated by a wheel cylinder which receives hydraulic pressure form the tandem master cylinder.

Disc brakes are normally fitted on Front brakes Disc brakes can be further classified as: Floating caliper brakes can be further classified as:

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