A SEMINAR REPORT ON “5 PEN PC TECHNOLOGY” Submitted in 5 Pen Pc Technology JIT/DOCSE//SEMINAR 16 device to 5 Pen. 5 Pen Pc Technology Seminar Report - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Seminar Report on 5 Pen Pc Technology - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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5 Pen PC Technology. Mrunal Shidurkar, Mohammad Usman. Abstract—P-ISM (“ Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package”), which is nothing but the new. Download the Seminar Report for 5 Pen PC Technology 5 Pen PC Technology ruthenpress.info · pen ruthenpress.info · Pen PC Technology ruthenpress.info 5 pen pc technology. Presented by: ruthenpress.info(08Q61A). CSE-A. Table of contents. History; Introduction; 5 functions; Block Diagram; Merits; Demerits.
At the same time, it is useful for Bluetooth devices to automatically establish a connection without user intervention as soon as they are in range.
To resolve this conflict, Bluetooth uses a process called pairing. Two devices need to be paired to communicate with each other. Once a pairing has been established it is remembered by the devices, which can the connect to each without user intervention. When desired, the pairing relation ship can later be removed by the user.
The base current version of the standard is IEEE The Security was originally purposefully weak due to export requirements of some governments, and was later enhanced via the Other standards in the family c-f, h, j are service amendments and extensions corrections other previous specifications.
Because of this choice of frequency band, Better or worse performance with higher or lower frequencies channels may be realized, depending on the environment. The segment of the radio frequency spectrum used by In the US, Frequencies used by channels one through six of Licensed amateur radio operators may operate Current Frames are divided into very specific and standardized sections.
Some frames may not have the form and function of the frame. The frame control field is further sub divided into the following sub- fields: Currently used protocol version is zero.
Other values are reserved for future use. Four bits providing addition discrimination between frames. Type and Sub type together to identify the exact frame. Each is one bit in size. They indicate whether a data frame is headed for a distributed system. Control and management frame set these values to zero. All the data frames will have one of these bit set. However communication with in an IBSS network always set these bits to zero. The More Fragments bit is set when a packet is divided into multiple frames for transmission.
Every frame except the frame of packet will have this bits set. Some times frames require retransmission, and for this there is a Retry bit which is set to one when a frame is resent. This aids in the elimination of duplication frames.
This bit indicates the power management state of the sender after the completion of a frame exchange. Access points are required to manage the connection and will never set the power saver bit. The More Data bit is used to buffer frames received in a distributed system. The access point use this bit to facilitate stations in power saver mode. It indicates that at least one frame is available and addresses all stations connected. The WEP bit is modified after processing a frame.
It is toggled to one after a frame has been decrypted or if no encryption is set it will have already been one. Frames and fragments are not always sent in order as it cause a transmission performance penalty. The next two bytes are reserved for the Duration ID field. This field can take one of three forms: An Each field can carry a MAC address.
Address 1 is the receiver, Address 2 is the transmitter, and Address 3 is used for filtering purposes by the receiver. The Sequence Control field is a two-byte section used for identifying message order as well as eliminating duplicate frames. The first 4 bits are used for the fragmentation number and the last 12 bits are these sequence number. An optional two-byte Quality of Service control field which was added with The Frame Body fields variable in size, from 0 to bytes plus any over head from security encapsulation and contains information from higher layers.
As frames are about to be sent the FCS is calculated and appended. When a station receives a frame it can calculate the FCS of If they match, it is assumed that the frame was not distorted during transmission.
Management Frames allow for the maintenance of communication. Some common With an open system authentication the WNIC only sends a single authentication frame and the access point responds with an authentication, after the WNIC sends its initial authentication request it will receive authentication frame from the access point containing challenge text.
The WNIC sends an authentication frame containing the encrypted version of the challenge text to the access point. The access point ensures the text was encrypted with the corrected key by encrypting it with its own key. The result of this process determines the WNICs authentication status.
If it is an acceptance, the frame will contain information such an association ID and supported data rates. Sent from station wishing to terminate connection from another station. Sent from a station wishing to terminate connection. Sent from an access point containing capability information, supported data rates, etc.
A WNIC sends a re-association request when it drops from range of the currently associated access point and finds another access point with a stronger signal. The new access point coordinates the forwarding of any information that may still be contained in the buffer of the previous access point. Sent from an access point containing the acceptance or rejection to a WNIC re association request frame. The frame includes information required for association such as the association ID and supported data rates.
Control frames facilitate in the exchange of data frames between stations.
After receiving a data frame, the receiving station will send an ACK frame to the sending station if no error are found. If the sending station does not receive an ACK frame with in a predetermined period of time, the sending station will resend frame. A station sends a RTS frame to as the first step in a two-way hand shake required before sending data frames. It provides clearance for the requesting station to send a data frame. The CTS provides collision control management by including a time value for which all other stations are to hold off transmission while the requesting stations transmits.
In , a group from the University of California, Berkeley presented a paper describing weaknesses in the In the attack, they were able to intercept transmissions and gain un authorization access to wireless networks.
The IEEE setup a dedicated task group to create are placement security solution, These started to appear in products in mid In January , IEEE setup yet another task group, TG w, to protect management and broadcast frames, which preciously were sent unsecured. Cellular Network A cellular network is a radio network distributed overland areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver known as cell site or base station.
When joined together these cell provide radio coverage over wide geographic area. This enables a larger number of portable transceivers e. In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service divided in to regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a single transmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in different area for completely different transmission.
If there is a single plan transmitter, only one transmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably some level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency. This means that, in standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap between cells which reuse the same frequency.
In the simple case of the taxi company, each radio had a manually operated channel selector knob to tune to different frequencies. As the drivers moved around, they would change from channel to channel. The drivers know which frequency covers approximately what area. When they do not receive a signal from the transmitter, they will try other channels until they find one that works. The taxi drivers only speak one at a time, when invited by the base station operator in a sense TDMA.
To distinguish signals from several different transmitters, frequency division multiple access FDMA and code division multiple access CDMA were developed. With FDMA, the transmitting and receiving frequencies used in each cell are different from the frequencies used in each neighboring cell. In a simple taxi system, the taxi driver manually tuned to a frequency of a chosen cell to obtain a strong signal and to avoid interference from other cells.
The principle of CDMA is more complex, but achieves the result the distributed transceivers can select one cell and listen to it. Other available methods of multiplexing such as polarization division multiple access PDMA and time division multiple access TDMA cannot be used to separate signals from one cell to the next since the effects of both vary with position and this would make signal separation practically impossible.
Time division multiple access, however, is used in combination with either FDMA or CDMA in a number of system to give multiple channels with in the coverage of a single cell. As described above, adjacent cells must utilized different frequencies how ever there is no problem with two cells sufficiently far a part operation the same frequency reuse are there use distance and the reuse factor.
Cells may vary in radius in the ranges 1 km to 30 km. The boundaries of the cells can also overlap between adjacent cells and large cells be divided into smaller cells. The frequency reuse factor is the rate which the same frequency can used in the network.
In case of N sector antennas on the same base station, each with different direction, the base station site can serve N different sectors. N is typically 3. In other words, adjacent base station site use the same frequencies, and the different base stations and users are separated by codes rather than frequencies.
While N is shown as 1 in this example , that does not mean the Depending on the size of the city, a taxi system may not have any frequency- reuse in its own city, but certainly in other near by cities, the same frequency can be used. In a big city, on the other hand, frequency- reuse could certain be in use.
Recently also orthogonal frequency-division multiple access based systems such as LTE are being developed with frequency reuse of 1. Since such systems do not spread the signal across the frequency and inter- cell radio resource management is important to coordinates resource allocation between different cell Interference Coordination ICIC already defined in the standard.
Coordinated scheduling, multi- site MIMO or multi-site beam forming are other examples for inter-cell radio resource management that might be standardized in the future.
Although the original, 2-way-radio cell towers were at the centers of the cells and were omni-directional, a cellular map can be redrawn with the cellular telephone towers located at the corners of the hexagons where three cells converge. This provides a minimum of three channels from three towers for each cell. The numbers in the illustration are channel numbers, which repeat every3 cells. Large cells can be subdivided into smaller cells for high volume areas.
This network is the foundation of the GSM system network. There are many functions that are performed by this network in order to make sure customers get the desired service including mobility management, registration, call setup and hand over. The link from a phone to the RBS is called an up link while the other way is termed down link. As we type on the laser Projection, it analyses what we are typing according to the co-ordinates of the location.
A virtual keyboard can usually be operated with multiple input devices, which may include a touch screen, an actual keyboard, a computer mouse, a head mouse and an eye mouse. Types On a desktop PC, one purpose of a virtual keyboard is provide an alternative input mechanism for users with disabilities who can not use a physical keyboard. Another major use for an on-screen keyboard is for bi- or multi-lingual users who switch frequently between different character sets or alphabets.
The standard on-screen keyboard utility on most windowing systems allow shot key Switching between layouts from the physical keyboard typically alt-shift but this user configure able , simultaneously changing both the hardware and the software keyboard layout. In addition, a symbol in the syst ray alerts the user to the currently active layout.
Although Linux supports this fast manual keyboard —layout switching function, many popular Linux on-screen keyboard such as gt keyboard or Kvkbd do not react correctly.
Kvkbd for example defines its visible layout according to the first define layout in Keyboard Preferences rather than the default layout, causing the application to output incorrect characters if the first layout on the list is not the default.
Multi-lingual, multi-alphabet users should choose a linux on —screen keyboard that support this feature instead, like Florence. Virtual keyboards are commonly used as non-screen input method in devices with no physical keyboard, where there is no room for one, such as a packet computer, personal digital assistant PDA , tablet computer or touch screen equipped mobile phone. It is common for the user to input text by tapping a virtual keyboard built into the operating system of the device.
Virtual keyboards are also used as features of emulation software for system that have fewer buttons than a computer keyboard would have. Virtual keyboards can be categorized by the following aspects ; Virtual keyboards to allow input from a variety of input devices, such as a computer mouse, switch or other assistive technology device.
An optical virtual keyboard has been invented and patented by IBM engineers in It optically detects and analyses human hand and finger motions and interprets the mas-operations on physically non-existent input device like a surface having painted keys.
In that way it allows to modulate unlimited types of manually operated input devices such as a mouse keyboard. On the Internet, various Java Script virtual keyboard shave been created, allowing users to type their own language on foreign keyboards, particularly in Internet cafes.
Security Consideration Virtual keyboards may be used in some cases to reduce the risk of key stroke logging.
It is more difficult for malware to monitor the display and mouse to obtain the data entered via the virtual keyboard, than it is to monitor real keystrokes. However it is possible, for example by recording screen shots at regular intervals or upon each mouse click. An observer can typically watch the screen more easily and less suspiciously than the keyboard, and see which characters the mouse move to Some This makes it much easier for an observer to read the data from the screen.
It is useful in video recording, video conferencing, simply it called as webcam. It is also connected with other devices through Bluetooth. It is a degrees visual communication device. This terminal will enable us to know about the surrounding atmosphere and group communication with around display and a central super wide angle camera.
Fig 5: Diagram of Digital Camera A digital camera or digicam is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. Most 21st century cameras are digital. Front and back of Canon Powers shot A95 Digital cameras can do things film cameras can not: The majority, including most compact cameras, can record moving video with sound as well as still photographs. Some have a GPS receiver built in and can produce Geo tagged photographs.
The optical system works the same as in film cameras, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pick up device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pick up device is electronic rather than chemical.
Most digicams, a part from camera phones and a few specialized types, have a standard screw. Digital cameras are incorporated in to many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones called camera phones to vehicles. The Hubble Space Telescope and other astronomical devices are essentially specialized digital cameras.
Types Of Digital Camera Digital cameras are made in a wider in a range of sizes, prices and capacities. The majority are camera phones, operated as a mobile application through the cell phone menu. Professional photographs and many amateurs use larger, more expensive digital single-lens reflex cameras DSLR for their greater versatility. Specialized cameras including spectral imaging equipment and astrographs continue to serve the scientific, military, medical and other special purposes for which digital photography was invented.
Most, a part from ruggedized or water-resistant models, incorporate are tractable lens assembly allowing a thin camera to have a moderately long focal length and thus fully exploit an image sensor larger than on a camera phone, and a The retracted and capped lens is protected from keys, coins and other hard objects, thus marking a thin, pocket able package.
Sub compacts commonly have one lug and a short wrist strap which aids extraction pocket, while thicker compacts may have two lugs for attaching a neck strap. Compact cameras are usually designed to be easy to use, sacrificing advanced feature and picture quality for compactness and simplicity images can usually only be stored using lossy compression JPEG. Most have built-in flash usually of low power, sufficient for near by subjects.
Live preview is almost always used to frame the photo. Most have limited motion picture capability. Compacts often have macro capacity and zoom range is usually less than for bridge and DSLR cameras. Generally a contrast-detect auto focus system, using the image data from the live preview feed of the main imager, focuses the lens. Typically, these cameras in corporate a nearly- silent leaf shutter into their lenses. For lower cost and smaller size, these cameras typically use image sensors with a diagonal of approximately 6 mm, corresponding to a crop factor around 6.
This give them weaker low-light performance, greater depth of field, generally closer focusing ability, and smaller components than cameras using larger sensors. Bridge Camera Bridge are higher —end digital camera that physically and ergonomically resemble DSLRs and share with them some advanced features, but share with compacts the use of a fixed lens and a smaller sensor.
Like compacts, most use live preview to frame the image. Their auto focus uses the same contrast-detect mechanism, but man bridge cameras have manual focus mode, in some cases using a separate focus ring, for greater control. Due to the combination of big physical size but a small sensor, many of these camera shave very highly specified lenses with larger zoom range and fast aperture, partially compensating for the inability to change lenses.
To compensate for the lesser sensitivity of their small sensors, these cameras almost always include an image stabilization system to enable longer hand held exposures. The highest zoom These cameras are some times marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the appearance is similar.
The scene is composed by viewing either the liquid crystal display or the electronic view finder EVF. Most have longer shutter lag than a trued SLR, but they are capable of good image quality with sufficient light while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. Many of these cameras can store images in a Raw image format, or processed and JPEG compressed, or both.
The majority have a built-in flash similar to those found in DSLRs. In bright sun the quality difference between a good compact camera minimal but bridge cams are more portable, costless and have similar zoom ability to DSLR.
Thus a Bridge camera may better suit outdoor day time activities, except when seeking professional quality photos. Olympus SZ MR can take 3D photo in any mode from macro to landscape by release the shutter for the first shot, slowly pan until camera automatically takes a second image from as lightly different perspective. Due to 3D processing is in-built in camera, so an. MPO file will easily display on 3D televisions or laptops. The size of the projector is of A4 size.
It has the approximate resolution capacity of X Thus it is gives more clarity and good picture. All video projectors use a very bright light to project the image, and most modern one scan correct any curves, blurriness, and other inconsistencies through manual settings. Video projectors are widely used for conference room presentations, class room training, home theatre and live events applications. Projectors are widely used in many schools and other educational settings, connected to an interactive while board to interactively teach pupils.
The cost of a device is not only determined by its resolution, but also by its brightness. A rating of to ANSI lumens or lower is suit able for smaller screens with controlled lighting or low ambient light. Between and lm is suitable for medium-sized screens with some ambient light or dimmed light. Over lm is appropriate for very large screens in a large room with no lighting control for example, a conference room. Projected image size is important because the total amount of light does not charge, diagonally, obscuring the fact that larger images require much more light proportional to the image area, not just the length of a side.
Projection Technologies CRT projector using cathode ray tubes. This typically involves a blue, a green, and a red tube. This is the oldest system still in regular use, but falling out of favor largely because of the bulky cabinet. However, it does provide the largest screen size for a give cost. This also covers three tube home models, which, while bulky, can be moved but then usually require complex picture adjustments to get the three images to line up correctly.
This is the simplest system, making it one of the most common and affordable for home theater and business use.
Its most More recent projectors with higher speed 2x or 4x and otherwise optimized color wheels have lessened this artifact. System with 3 DMDs never have this problem, as they display each primary color simultaneously. LED projectors use one of the above mentioned technologies for image creation, with a difference that they use an array of Light Emitting Diodes as the light source, negating the need for lam pre placement.
Laser diode projectors have been developed by Micro vision and A ax a Technologies. Usually batteries must be small in size and work for longer time. For normal use is can be used for 2 weeks. This model is usually considered an advancement from the desktop padgim. More formally Ubiquitous computing is defined as "machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs". The another major important merit of a 5 pen pc is that its has a Wi-Fi technology built in it through which the user can connect to the internet very easily.
Wifi, is a mechanism that allows electronic devices to exchange data wirelessly over a computer network. A device enabled with Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smart phone, tablet, or digital audio player, can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a wireless network access point.
An access point or hotspot has a range of about 20 meters 65 ft indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can comprise an area as small as a single room with walls that block radio signals or a large area, as much as many square miles, covered by multiple overlapping access points.
To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller. The communication devices are becoming smaller and compact. This is only an example for the start of this new technology. We can expect more such developments in the future. By the human needs the communication devices are becoming smaller and compactable. PC are becoming smaller and smaller. We can see that the 5 pen pc technology is one of the advanced Portable PC that is easy to carry even in our pockets and work with it any where we want.
This 'pen sort of instrument' produces both the monitor as well as the keyboard on any flat surfaces from where you can carry out functions you would normally do on your desktop computer. This is just a new start. We can expect much more advanced comfortable pc system in future. Are you interested in this topic.
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