The highest transfer of training result occurs with the use ofsport- specific exercises. These two V.M. Zatsiors Bodyweight Strength Training Anatomy. Strength Training Anatomy - 2nd Edition. Home · Strength Training Anatomy - 2nd Edition downloads Views 17MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF. STRENGTH TRAINING ANATOMY. CURLS. Pectoralis major, clavicular part. Deltoideus, anterior part. Deltoideus, middle part. Flexor carpi ulnaris. Biceps.
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Download full-text PDF. Content This book provides a truly multidisciplinary approach to a very Strength training Anatomy is a revised work that was initially . The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. . Bodyweight Strength Training Anatomy was written for several categories of people. Because the emphasis of this book is anatomy and strength training, an in-depth examination of these topics and the unraveling of the mysteries of stretching are.
This is a style that was made popular by Paul Anderson. Time under tension refers to the amount of time your muscle under stress during a set. This consists of the time spent in the concentric or the shortening phase, peak contraction phase, as well as the eccentric or the lengthening phase.
For example, if you go perform a set of 10 reps and each rep takes 3 seconds to complete, your muscle is under tension for a total of 30 seconds. If you were to perform the same exercise but if you spent 2 seconds in the concentric phase, 1 second to stop during peak contraction, and 3 seconds to lower the weight during the eccentric phase of the rep, the same 10 reps would end up putting your muscles under tension for about 60 seconds.
Using a wrist strap. Wrist straps Wrist straps lifting straps are sometimes used to assist in gripping very heavy weights. Wrist straps can be used to isolate muscle groups like in "lat pull-downs", where the trainee would primarily use the latissimus dorsi muscles of the back rather than the biceps.
They are particularly useful for the deadlift. Some lifters avoid using wrist straps to develop their grip strength , just as some go further by using thick bars. Wrist straps can allow a lifter initially to use more weight than they might be able to handle safely for an entire set, as unlike simply holding a weight, if it is dropped then the lifter must descend with it or be pulled down. Straps place stress on the bones of the wrist which can be potentially harmful if excessive.
Combined techniques[ edit ] Strength training may involve the combining of different training methods such as weight training, plyometrics, bodyweight exercises, and ballistic exercises. This is often done in order to improve a person's ability to apply their strength quickly.
Or in other words, to improve their ability to apply explosive power. Loaded plyometrics[ edit ] Loaded plyometrics involve the addition of weights to jumping exercises. The weights may be held or worn. For instance, vertical jumps whilst holding a trap bar or jumping split squats whilst holding dumbbells. This helps to enhance the explosive power of the athlete. Ideally, both sets of exercises should move through similar ranges of movement; such a pairing is called a complex, or contrast, pair.
The intention is to utilise the intense nervous system activation and increased muscle fibre recruitment from the heavy lift in the plyometric exercise; thereby increasing the power with which it can be performed. Over a period of training, this may result in the athlete being able to perform the plyometric exercise more powerfully, without the requirement of the preceding heavy lift.
Ballistic training[ edit ] Ballistic training, sometimes referred to as power training, is based upon the principle of maximising the acceleration phase of the exercise and minimising the deceleration phase; this helps to improve the athlete's explosive power. On this basis, ballistic training may include exercises which involve the throwing of a weight, such as a medicine ball, or jumping whilst holding or wearing a weight.
The heavy set should be performed fast with the light set being performed as fast as possible. The joints should not be locked as this inhibits muscle fibre recruitment and reduces the speed at which the exercise can be performed. A loaded plyometric exercise, or ballistic exercise, may take the place of the light lift.
Similarly to complex training, contrast loading relies on the intense nervous system activation and enhanced muscle fibre recruitment from the heavy lift to help improve the power with which the subsequent exercise can be performed. By way of explanation, if a light weight is lifted, and then a heavy weight is lifted, and then the same light weight is lifted again, then the light weight will feel lighter the second time it is lifted.
This is due to the increased PAP effect from the heavy lift allowing for greater power to be applied and thus making the subsequent lighter lift feel even lighter than before. Explosive power training programmes are frequently designed to specifically utilise the PAP effect.
Risks and concerns[ edit ] This section contains instructions, advice, or how-to content. The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to train. Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity , Wikibooks or Wikivoyage. July Strength training is a safe form of exercise when the movements are controlled, and carefully defined.
Or some safety measures can also be taken before the training. However, as with any form of exercise, improper execution and the failure to take appropriate precautions can result in injury.
A helmet, boots, gloves, and back belt can aide in injury prevention. Principles of weight training safety apply to strength training. Main article: Bodybuilding Bodybuilding is a sport in which the goal is to increase muscle size and definition. Bodybuilding increases the endurance of muscles, as well as strength, though not as much as if they were the primary goals. Bodybuilders compete in bodybuilding competitions, and use specific principles and methods of strength training to maximize muscular size and develop extremely low levels of body fat.
In contrast, most strength trainers train to improve their strength and endurance while not giving special attention to reducing body fat below normal. Strength trainers tend to focus on compound exercises to build basic strength, whereas bodybuilders often use isolation exercises to visually separate their muscles, and to improve muscular symmetry. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book Details Author: Bret Contreras Pages: Human Kinetics Brand: Englisch ISBN: Publication Date: You just clipped your first slide!
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Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Being overly tired and wishing to avoid another workout is an obvious sign that you have done too many sets. For aesthetic purposes, muscles can artificially be divided into the following three major categories: 1.
Most important muscles: quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes 2. Complex muscles: back, shoulders, and abdominals 3. You should be aware of your energy level before each workout. If one day you feel strong, you can perform more sets than usual.
On the other hand, if you feel tired, do not hesitate to reduce the number of sets for that day. Choose the Number of Repetitions Per Set How many times repetitions should you perform an exercise in each set?
For muscle toning, it is best to do from 10 to 20 repetitions with heavier weights. To burn calories and fat and to improve your cardiovascular health, do at least 30 repetitions, and up to 50, with lighter weights. Determining the number of reps can be explained using a pyramid. This concept can be used whenever you perform more than one set per exercise.
The pyramid system is used primarily with lower reps and heavier weights. When using lighter weights and higher reps, only increase the weight if you can remain within your targeted rep range; if you cannot, reduce the weight rather than the number of reps. Once your muscles are fully warmed up see how to specifically warm up each muscle group in part II , start with a light weight and a high number of repetitions e. However, do not stop during a set except for the warm-up because you have reached your repetition goal.
If you were shooting for 12 reps but could do 16, go ahead and do them! For the third set, add weight so that you can perform only 10 repetitions. This issue is very important not only to get fast results but also, and more important, to be able to stick to your program.
You do not want to use too long a workout as an excuse not to go to the gym.
A brief workout is much better than no workout at all. Even minimal training provides muscle gains. One researcher has shown that, in women, as little as two minutes of daily resistance training for 10 weeks increased the rate of torque development by 16 percent. We believe that a minute workout is better than a 2-minute workout.
If you are a beginner, a to minute workout is ideal. After one to two months of training, try 20 to 30 minutes. After six months of training, 30 to 45 minutes should suffice. The duration of your workout does not have to be fixed. If one day you have more time, do more sets or more exercises or target more body regions. If on another day you have less time, concentrate on the most important regions for your goals, or reduce your rest time between sets.
A major mistake is believing that a good solution for skipping a workout is training twice as long during the next one.
It is not. Regularity is crucial! If you do not have time to go to the gym, there are plenty of exercises you can do at home with minimal or no equipment. In other words, do not skip workouts. This is of the utmost importance!
If you skip one workout, you will skip another and then another. Next thing you know, you have not trained for months. The objective of a good workout is to stimulate muscles to their maximum in the shortest time possible. The primary criterion that determines the duration of your workout is your schedule.
If you do not have a lot of time, you can do a complete workout in a short time—for example, 10 minutes of circuit training see the section Increasing Intensity. However, a minute workout is still preferable. A good weight training workout lasts at least 30 minutes and up to a maximum of 45 minutes.
If you spend more than one hour working out, your effort is not intense enough. At the end of 30 to 45 minutes, your muscles should be begging for mercy.
The duration of your workout depends on two things: 1. Volume of work number of exercises plus number of sets 2. Rest time between sets 12 Developing Your Training Program Rest time is the factor you need to adjust if you do not have enough time for your workout. Learn the Proper Speed for Each Repetition The speed of your repetitions is a very important factor in the success of your program.
Do not lift a weight with too much speed by using momentum and body swings instead of your own muscle strength. If you are just starting weight lifting, use a deliberate tempo rather than an explosive motion.
You will quickly realize that a slower motion is more excruciating than a fast one. You use your muscles much more when you lift a weight up and down slowly, which is exactly what you want.
The key to rep speed is remaining in control of the weight rather than letting the weight control your motion. This is especially true at the beginning of a set.
As your set progresses, you will start to lose control of your movement; however, this does not mean that you should stop trying to keep as much control as possible. You will feel your muscle contract much more efficiently. You are less likely to damage your joints or tear a muscle. You are less prone to making a faulty move or losing your balance.
We recommend that you take two or three seconds to raise a weight and at least as much time, if not slightly more, to lower it. The weaker your muscles are or the older you are, the slower each repetition should be performed. The elderly are trained with much success using a super slow motion of 10 seconds to lift the weight and 10 seconds to lower it.
Determine How Long to Rest Between Sets Consider your rest time between sets as a tool to help you reach your goal faster. If you mainly wish to sculpt your muscles, you need to rest long enough so that you recover most of your strength. On the other hand, you do not want to rest so much that your workout loses its intensity despite the heavier weight.
If your goal is mainly to burn fat, do not rest much. If you have no endurance because you just started weight training, you may want to rest more.
But as you progress, you should shorten this rest time to respect the guidelines as much as possible and to ensure that you do not waste too much time in the gym. As you progress, reduce this resting time to a bare minimum. Once you have achieved that, you are ready to move on to the most intense form of weight training: circuits. Of course, with circuit training, your rest time between exercises should be limited to the time you spend moving from one exercise to the next.
Research has shown that women performing a similar workload as men produce less lactic acid and experience a lower elevation of heart rate. Therefore, they require less rest than men do between sets. Therefore, time yourself so that you stay within the time frame you set. This will keep you from resting too much.
The time required to move from one machine to the next and adjust the seat or the weight or both provides enough rest. You might even have to wait for someone to finish a set. Do not add this compulsory wait time to a voluntary rest you just took. Moving fast burns both more calories and more fat while cutting down on the time you spend in the gym. Pick the Proper Weight for Each Exercise At first, choosing the proper resistance for each exercise may seem complicated. Start with a resistance that seems too light to be challenging for your muscles.
This easy set will serve as a first warm-up. For the next warm-up set, increase the resistance slightly. If you hesitate, wondering whether the increase might be too much, pick up a weight that is too light and perform more repetitions rather than use too much resistance with sloppy form. For your real first working set, increase the resistance even more, but again, not too much.
If the weight feels too light during the first repetition, interrupt your set and pick up a more appropriate weight. By the same token, if the movement feels too difficult, stop your set and reduce the resistance.
For your second working set, you might increase the resistance slightly more to render the movement more challenging. But if your muscles feel tired, stay with the same resistance or reduce it slightly.
There is no fixed rule, here! You have to remain flexible regarding the amount of resistance. Whenever you perform more repetitions than expected, pick up a slightly heavier weight for the next set.
Whenever you perform fewer repetitions than expected, pick up a slightly lighter weight for the next set. There are plenty of apps for this. Know When to Increase Resistance If you scrupulously note all your workouts as suggested, you will easily figure out when to increase your weight for your next workout. If you do not write down your weight, you will face a very tedious task. You will not always be correct in your decision to increase your training load.
Do not worry; nobody can predict future performances with percent accuracy. However, you will be correct far more often if you have written records of your past performances than you will be if you rely on your memory. Warning: If you had a very good workout last time, on paper, you may believe that you are ready to handle heavier weights. However, keep in mind that a very good workout takes a greater toll on the muscles and therefore on the recovery processes than an average training session.
Therefore, your muscles may not have fully recovered and, as such, may not be ready to handle heavier weights. By the same token, recovering from a mediocre workout is easier than recovering from a standard workout. This is why most bad training sessions are followed by an increase of strength. Take this into account in your decision to modify your resistance. Choose Exercises That Suit Your Morphology Because of the variety of movements, starting a training program can be confusing.
You have to realize that not all those exercises will suit your needs, and even fewer will suit your body biomechanics. Everybody's morphology is unique in terms of height and the length of torso, legs, and arms.
Some exercises force us to adopt unnatural positions, whereas others feel very natural to us. If a movement places you in an uncomfortable position, eliminate it from your routine.
When you start lifting, stick to movements that you feel your build is designed to perform safely. As a rule of thumb, the taller you are, the more dangerous the basic free weight exercises will be because you have to go through a much greater range of motion. This is typically true of the squat and the chest press.
By the same token, body weight exercises such as push-ups are likely to be more traumatic for your joints, also because of this greater range of motion. Part II identifies movements for which safety depends greatly on body biomechanics.
You may wonder which is more effective. As you will discover in part II, some muscles, such as the hamstrings, are difficult to train without machines.
On the other hand, free weights are more appropriate for body parts such as the biceps. For this reason, a combination of both is best. It is a common belief in the gym that free weights are more effective than machines.
This is simply not true. The most effective way to make progress is to use machines whenever they are more appropriate than free weights, and free weights whenever they are more appropriate than machines. We are very much in favor of machines for beginners because they are typically much easier to master and better guide your movement as you learn the exercise. In addition, many new machines provide quick response QR codes that allow you to view a video of how to use the machine on your smartphone.
You do not have to rely on anyone to demonstrate the proper use of the equipment. Of course, there is no such QR code on free weights. Many studies point out that, for beginners, strength gains occur more rapidly with machines than with free weights. This very limited learning curve makes machines more appropriate for beginners.
Women starting weight lifting are more likely to make better progress with machines than with free weights. During a week study in which sedentary women followed a weight training program, one group trained exclusively with machines and the other with free weights. Muscular strength increased twice as much in the women who trained on machines. They will be easier then because your muscles will have gotten used to the workout.
Two Major Exercise Subcategories All movements, be they with body weight, free weights, or machines, can be divided into two major categories: basic, multiple-joint exercises and isolated, single-joint exercises. Basic, multiple-joint exercises: Whenever more than one joint is flexed, the exercise is classified as a basic, multiple-joint exercise. For example, in a leg lunge, the knees, ankles, and hips are mobilized.
Basic movements are more demanding than isolated movements, and they save time in your workout by working multiple muscles, but they are more complex to master. Isolated, single-joint exercises: Whenever only one joint is flexed, the exercise is classified as an isolated, single-joint exercise.
For example, in the leg extension, only the knees are mobilized. Because of the lesser demand on the body, isolated movements are easier to perform than basic, multiple-joint ones.
However, because they recruit fewer muscles groups, they are less effective in terms of strength gains and calorie expenditure. If your athletic abilities are minimal, use mostly isolated movements to rapidly improve your mind—muscle connection. After a few weeks of such training, you can progress to more basic exercises.
All movements, whether basic or isolated, are easier to perform on machines than with free weights. Keep this in mind if you have no athletic background because you do not want your new training program to be too hard on your muscles and joints.
It is counterproductive for beginners to frequently alter their routines because of the motor learning process required to assimilate new exercises.