Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Susan Singer is the Laurence McKinley Gould Professor of eBook Online Access for Biology - Kindle edition by Peter Raven. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Biology, 11th Edition by Peter Raven and George Johnson and Kenneth Mason Integrated course eBook; Supporting how-to videos, interactives and extra. Edition Ebook PDF for Free. ruthenpress.info: Biology Raven 10th. Loose Leaf Biology 10th Edition By Raven, Peter, Johnson, George, Mason.
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Raven, Ph. He oversees the garden's internationally recognized research program in tropical botany--one of the world's most active in the study and conservation of imperiled tropical habitats.
Raven's botanical research and work in the area of tropical conservation have earned him numerous honors and awards, including a MacArthur Fellowship. He has written 17 textbooks and more than articles, and he is a member of th National Academy of Science and the National Research Council.
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The major concerns about their use arise from their tendency to cause hypokalemia, impair glucose tolerance, increase serum cholesterol, and increase serum uric acid.
Few medical controversies have generated as much heat, with well-established camps staking out positions that appear resistant to change 6 - 9. ALLHAT, the largest study of antihypertensive mono-therapy ever performed 10 , was intended to identify the best first-line treatment of high risk hypertensive individuals; yet despite its size, and the numerous resulting publications, its implications and authority continue to be disputed. The goal of this review is not take sides in this debate, but rather to inject a distinct, and sometimes neglected, perspective; during the past 15 years, remarkable developments in molecular biology and human genetics have provided substantial insights into the pathogenesis of hypertension and mechanisms and side effects of diuretics.
Diuretic proponents and antagonists alike often neglect these developments when addressing the topic; it is the purpose of this Brief Review to integrate these developments into the debate with the goal of generating questions that can be addressed scientifically.
Although these drugs lower arterial pressure effectively, the mechanisms have long perplexed investigators Thiazides reduce cardiac output acutely by reducing extracellular fluid ECF and plasma volume, but ECF volume returns toward baseline during chronic use and vasodilation supervenes At steady state, therefore, the predominant effect of thiazides is vasodilation, rather than volume-contraction.
Based on this sequence of physiological effects, and on the difficulty in detecting any ECF volume depletion during chronic treatment, many authorities suggest that the primary mechanism by which thiazide diuretics reduce arterial pressure involves direct vasodilatation, perhaps mediated by alterations in vascular ion transport 13 - 15 ; others, however, emphasize that salt depletion is necessary 12 , suggesting that vasodilatation is secondary to ECF volume contraction.