This is why writing Persepolis was so important to me. I believe that an entire nation should not be can forgive but one should never forget. Marjane Satrapi. Satrapi, Persepolis 1 English - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. lnternational Journal of Persian Literature Chrrte, Hillary, "T'he Texture of Retracing in Marjane Satrapi's Persepolis!' WSQ: Wamen s Sfudies Quarterly 36, .
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increased encephalization— Marjane Satrapi's Persepolis is just such a text, Bending Boundaries Through Hybrid Media in Marjane Satrapi's Persepolis and . Author: Marjane Satrapi. downloads Views 23MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Persepolis 1: Eine Kindheit im Iran · Read more. The Complete Persepolis Here, in one volume: Marjane Satrapi's best-selling, internationally acclaimed graphic memoir. Persepolis is the story of Satrapi's.
In Satrapi"s graphic novel, the veiling episode in the firsl chapler fulfilis two important functions: Although Satrapi conslructs a sound, mostly chronologically accurate "skeleton" of Lhe narrative, she keeps lhe dates ofthe evenLs concealed because Lhey are irrelevant for the intended messagel and because the narrator-a chjld-would not have kept track of them. The flow cf events is inlerrupled at times by embedcled excurses and llashbacks within which the historicai information is also strictly chronologically arranged.
By including these ref'erences to events that had taken place haifa century before the revolulion of , Salrapi replicates the tendency of the premodern persian histcrians to deviate from the annalistic principle of history writing whenever that suited their didacLic goals. Documentary Evidence: The lconography of the Revolution Il was mentioned earlier that premodern historians often inserLed in their narratives "the raw materials of history lletters, oaths, poetry, snatches of conversalion], whether.
Orr Lhe textuai level, she often marks turning point.
Persepollsthrough the Lens of Persir: Aiso, as in real life, her heroes and viliairrs cannot be immediately distinguished by their appeayance. The photographic aspect of Satrapi's drawings, however, goes wellLreyond lhe seemingly literaiist streak of her representations. She tends to use broadly disseminated and instantly recognizable photographs from the r: Thus, a panel frr: Satrapi's drawing, however, is not a slavish copy of the photograph.
It deviares from the original in a meaningful and -judiciousiy considered way. For example, the Shah's statue in the monument-toppling frame is not dressed in military uniform as jn lhe phoLograph, but in a robe, ermine collar, and a crown- royal attributes familiar to French readers Salrapi's primary irr- tended audience from the classical French tradition of children's book illustrations.
Last bul not least among Satrapi's retouches of the photographic remplate is the clean-shaven, bespectacled man arguably an intellectuai , who instructs the invisible mob to "Pr. Figure I. Marjaile Satrapi, "The trrore he lried democracy, the more his statues were torn down," Saurce'. Chapter 6: Pantheon, , Figure 2. On the grouncl of Teliran University' the Shah's statue is taketr down by demonstrators. Persepolis through the Lens of Persian Histrtriogrophy also multilayered, ironic, and subversive, delivering through the vivid imagination of an "inexperienced ten-year-oid" Satrapi's incisive and ironic commentary on the r-Lnfolding events, and on the assumptions and ideological preoccupations of all factors and factions on the Iranian political stage, including those with whom she closely identifies.
The amount of serious research that has gone irrto this "naively told story af a childhood" is best seen in Satrapi's ap- propriation of yet another iconic image of the revolution: Peter Chelkowskiand Hamid Dabashi. Revolutionary posters", Staging a RevoJudon: Ern- bedded in each corpse is a blood-red automatic rifle, and the alter- nating phrases "Black Friday" in English and its Persian equivalent, 'Jum'ah Siyah.
The blood of each demonstrator killed in Lhe slack fr: In Satrapi's rendition figure 4 , seven identical corpses in their shrouds inexorably push out the reluctant Shah, who is trying to dig in his heels. The caption above reads "The end of the shah's reign was nearl'Thus, Satrapi pays tribute to an iconic revolu- ticrnary artifact, explicates its meaning, and-with the benefit of hlnd- sight-situates the event it refers to in the over: Before we close the chapter on Persepohs's historicity, something must be said about apuzz.
There is no sign in the book of the militant clerics,sa who are widely seen as the true leaders of the revolution of r97s Bearded lay Islamists and their heavily veiled female counterparts, as well as male and female Guardians of the Revolution,s5 are in evidence Lhroughout the book.
But where is Ayatollah Khomeini, whose photos dominated the world news? There are only two panels in Chapter 9: The phrase "lmposed peace" neatly reverses "The Imposed War" slogan, which sums up for iranians the Iraqi invasion. The paraphrase explicates Ayatollah Khomeini's posilion that the sudden peace overture is the initiative of the same side that started the war-and the enerny should not be accommodaled, but pursued till final victory. Bul was Klromeini's extended hand as rnuch of a revolutionary icon in Iran as his stern lurbaned visage was itr the West?
That supposjtion is supported by a variety ofphotos and placards, produced in the islamic Republic, featuring Ayatollah Khomeini raising his hand in benedicLion over the heads of his supporters. T'he sheer" number of these images confirms the importance of the raised-hand gesture in the iconography of the Ayatollah in lran. According to Peter Cheikowski and Hamid Dabashi, the revolution of tglg was a broad popular movement to which "three major ideological claims were laid: Persepolis is told from the viewpoint of the secular intellectuals and since the secularist viewpoint is that of Satrapi's tar: Aulhors iike Salrapi, r,vho have in- vested heavily in cultural translation, must take into accounl both their readers' thirst for authentic insight into the orher cultr-rre, of- fered by an informed insider and the limits of human empathy with "the others," inhabiting an alien environment.
A number of scholars have addressed the strategies Satrapi employs in her efforts to ne- gotiate the Easl-Wesl divide, and to defuse the image problem that lran and diasporic lranians were encountering in the West afler the revolution.
Two studies in parlicular have been helpful in defining the perim- eter of my own invesLigation: A Case Study of Mar: The question of culturaltranslation is also addressed in the second articie, which examines Persepohs from lhe perspeclive of diasporic cultural studies. This article tests this pr"emise on the micro level, analyzirTg the function of specific features of the narrative in simuitaneously addressing both indigenous and diasporic audiences.
The book is named after aworld-famous archaeological site. Undoubtedly, for Weslerners and lranians alike, this title is a re- minder that ancient Persia, the great multiethnic empire founded by the Achaemenids in the sixth century BCE, has a glorious past, implicitly juxtaposed lo Iran's problemalic present standing in Western public opinion.
For Iranians from the pcst-World War Two generation, il would call to ruincl an encyclopedia pub- lished in the s by the Pahlavi Foundation under the auspices of the UNESC0 National Commission in lran, which comprises ar- ticles on Persian history and cullure through lhe ages.
Satrapi's concerns wilh reaching Western audiences,ee and her stated goai ofexorcising negative stereotypes about the people of her native country, firrd expression in many interviews with the author. Amy Malek has alr"eady pointed out the pedagogical palhos of Satrapi's memoir, and her effective strategy of bridging the cultural divide by "fdepicting] surroundings that are simultaner: Persepolis through the Lens of Persion Historiography Iranian historical buildings.
Even the burial-chamber of Cyrus the Great r. N Figure 5. Marjane Satrapi, "He even went ta lhe grave of Cyms the Great, who ruled over the ancient worldl' Source: Chapter 4: Pantheon, zoo3 , zB. Figure 6. Wikimedia Commons: Tomb, Cyrus the Great, iran, Library of Congress, https: C ross-c u ltu rs I i d e ntifi cati on This is achieved through the technique of "cartooning," or stripping down an image of its realistic details to Lurn it into an "icon," Lhus amplifying its "essential 'meaning.
Here is his ex- planation for how abstraction works: Lhe shoes of those who populate it, forgetting that they are tourisLs. Utilizing a visual language that reeds no interpretaLion and offers no distractions, the author makes allo-identification easier, ensuring maximum empathy fcrr her lranian characters. Islamic ciolhing is one cf the most potent among them. Thus, the increase in veiled figures in Persepolis marks nr: Given the numerical imbalance between f"ull beards and black chadors on the one hand, and clean-shaven facesf covered heads cn Lhe otheq the viewer is ieft with the impression that in the world sketched tnPersepoli.
In the panel, the spotlight is on a group of bearded "fundametrlalisLs," drawn in stark black and while, while all around them, in the shadows, sketchy silhouettes love, laugh, dance, and carry on a full, though clandestine, existence.
The "fundamentalists" occupy center sLage, but by another yardstick they are also completely surrounded by Lhose who r: The caption on the panel reads "The more lime passed, the more I became conscious of the contrast between the officialrepresentation of my country, and the real life of Lhe people, the one lhat wenl on behind the walls.
She is also a cannily chosen avatar for the adult Satrapi, as the girl's irrepressible candor and seemingly innocuous queries punclure large holes in the prelences, affectations, and selfl delusions of the adulls around her. Marji's "specific story" also func- tions like a parable of the human condition, using Iranian content Lo broach broader moral and ethical issues, and here are three of those: Should the sins of the fathers be visited uFron the sons?
Swept on a wave o1'righleousness and revolutionary fervor like triumphant revolutionaries in general , young Marji in Chapter 6: Where do cads come from? In Chapter Faced by the possibility of arrest and detention fbr wear: Simidchieva , Persepolis through the Lens of Persion Historiogrophy r19 3.
Should an 6. Desperate lo fit ir, with her Austrian classmates, and ashamed of lran's image as "the epitome of evil," in Chapter Once again, her grandmother's admonish- ment "be true to yourself"tl6 helps her sland tall, and find her station in her new environment without denying her roots.
PersistenL anti-semitism, expressed in lhe denial of the Holocaust by some Islamist circles;and the shari'a penal code, which exacts severe punishment for hornosexual acLs, are two issues that have deeply tarnished lran's image jn Western eyes.
Do ordinary Iranians share these attiludes? Should they be tarreci with the same brush? Satrapi's answer comes not through protestations, but through two autobiographic episodes that show another side of Iranian reality.
The first one features Marji's reaction lo lhe tragic loss of herJewish friend Neda;the second is an encoun- ter beLween Marji's mother and her daughler's eight Austrian room- mates, who happen to be gay men. True,Jews have been living in Persia since antiquity, and Cyrus the Great's berrevolenl trealment of the Babylonian exiles earned him an honorabie mention in lhe Holy Writ.
Apart from conveying her personal history, her horror and grief at the loss of her friend Neda have an additional point to make. On the concluding panel of the episode, she is seen teaching one of the men how to say "i love you" in Persian to his lranian icve interest. Conclusion lnPersepolis Satrapi adapts effectively some of the strategies of the Fersian historiographic tradition to a new alien genre and achieves her didactic objectives. The book provides enough accurate references to the Iranian social and cultr-tralcontext to open a meaningful discr-rssion on the tectoiric shifts, which reshaped the region in the lale s and early s.
It also uses "the liminal space" between culLures as a shared gr"ound from which non-Iranians can gain a native perspective on the Iran! One of Salrapi's most remarkable achievemenLs is that her comments on both societies are equaily honest, forthright, and unsentimental. Their banner is inscribed with the motto of Marji's indomitabie grandma: N OTES 1. Marshall G.
Hodgson,TheVenture of Islarn: Conscience andHistory in a warldcivilizafion,vol. The University of Chicago Press, j, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Latlfi, Afschinel'r. Even After AllTlisTime: Harper Perennial, Mackenzie, D, N, "Eran, Erandahr. Columbia University. Malek, Amy. Mazur, Dan, and Alexauder Danner. A Globnl History, ta rhe Present. Thames and Hudson Lld.
McCloud, Scott. Understanding Carnics: The Invisible Arf. HarperCollins Pr"rblishers, 4. Meisami,Julie Scotl. PersianHistariograp'hy, edited by Charles Melville, T'auris, Edinburgh University Press, Melville, Charles. L B, Tauris, Perslan Historiography, edited by Charles Melville, xxv-lv.
Taurls, -. Moaveni, Azadeh. Lipstick Jihad: Public Affairs, Mottahedeh, Negar, "Cff the Grid: Reading lranian lvlemoirs in Our Tirne of Total War. A Memoir in Books. Ratrdom House, Nanquette, Letita. Orientalism versus ccidentalism: International tibrary ofCultural Studies. Pahlavi, Farah. An Endurfug Love: My Life with the Shah-sMemoir. Marjane Satrapi on Writing Persepolis.
Poster of Khomeini after the Viclory of the Revolutiotr. Ranrazani, Nesta. The lJance of the Rose and the Nightingale: Life between lran and America: Gender, Cttlture, and Poiirrcs in the Mi.
Syracuse University Fress, Satrapi, Marjane. The CompletePersepalis" New York: Parltheon, Persepolis 1: The itory of tt Childhaod. The Stary of aReturn. Pantheon, Slrahbazi, A. CotLrmbi a Univers ity.
Spiegelman, Art, lt4aus I: A Survivor's Tttle: My Fsther Bleeds History. Pantheon Books, Maus II: A Survivor's Tale: And Here My Troublss Began.
Tagavi, Jiman, "The lran-Iraq War: Internal Dynamics, Regional Conflict. Columbia University Press, Wolk, Douglas. Reading Con'Lics: Cambridge, MA, and New York: Da Capo Press, Yarslrater, Ehsan. Cambridge University Press, Persepolis through the Lens of Persisn Historiogrophy 3. See, e.
A Novel of lran,trarTs. Susan Massotty fdinburgh: Canongate Books, i , originally wri tten in Dutch; or the numerous autobiographical and memoiristic works from the ts and the first decade of the iwenty-firsi century rvritten in English by Iranian American women authors, On lilerature bv Iranian authors written in French, see Letilia Nanquelte, Orientalism versus Occidentalism: Tauris, , 4.
Amir Kabir", f SZO. Meisami, P erslan Histor iagrttphy. Melville, "lntroductionl' in A llistory of Persittn Literature X: Charles P er siqn h'ille London: Tauris, 20 1 2 , Hisr orio gr aphy, ed.
The term "graphic novel" is used to designate "apotential'higher' form of comics,.
Da Capo Press, , Thor-rgh gaining in currency, it has nol vet soiidified either as a designation of a specific type of comic book, or as applied to Marjane Satrerpi's work. Iran was rich. Because of its wealth and its geographic location, it invited attacks: From Alexander the Great, from its Arab neighbors to the west, from Turkish and Mongolian conquerors, Iran was often subject to foreign domination. Yet the Persian language and culture withstood these invasions. The invaders assimilated into this strong culture, and in some ways they became Iranians themselves.
In the twentieth century, Iran entered a new phase. Reza Shah decid- ed to modernize and westernize the country, but meanwhile a fresh source of wealth was discovered: And with the oil came another inva- sion. The West, particularly Great Britain, wielded a strong influence on the Iranian economy. But Reza Shah, who sympathized with the Germans, declared Iran a neutral zone.
So the Allies invaded and occupied Iran. Reza Shah was sent into exile and was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was known simply as the Shah.
Nikola At Niko. Her father briefly considers fleeing to America, only to realize the price would be too great. Iron Maiden, Nikes and Michael Jackson become precious symbols of freedom, and eventually Satrapis rebellious streak puts her in danger, as even educated women are threatened with beatings for improper attire.
Despite the grimness, Satrapi never lapses into sensationalism or sentimentality. Skillfully presenting a childs view of war and her own shifting ideals, she also shows quotidian life in Tehran and her familys pride and love for their country despite the tumultuous times. Powerfully understated, this work joins other memoirs-Spiegelmans Maus and Saccos Safe Area Goradze-that use comics to make the unthinkable familiar.
Copyright Reed Business Information, Inc. Biography Marjane Satrapi was born in in Rasht, Iran. She grew up in Tehran, where she studied at the French school, before leaving for Vienna and Strasbourg to study decorative arts.