In this comprehensive title, famed animator Preston Blair shares his expertise on how to develop a cartoon character, create dynamic movement, and coordinate. Similar Free eBooks. Filter by page count, Pages is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation. Learn & Enjoy CARTOON ANIM Cartoon Animation by Preston Blairpdf Cartoon Animation – Preston Blair en español. Cartoon Animation by Preston Blair. A must have for everyone who wants to learn how to animate and do cartoon character design.
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Preston Blair - Cartoon Animation - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Cartoon Animation (Collector's Series) [Preston Blair] on ruthenpress.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In Cartoon Animation, acclaimed cartoon animator. by PrestOn Blair. WALIER 1।। can be an exciting experience to create and develop an original cartoon character. to a world of exciting cartoon animation.
In Cartoon Animation, acclaimed cartoon animator Preston Blair shares his vast practical knowledge to explain and demonstrate the many techniques of cartoon animation. By following his lessons, you can make any character—person, animal, or object—come to life through animated movement!
Animation is the process of drawing and photographing a character in successive positions In Cartoon Animation, acclaimed cartoon animator Preston Blair shares his vast practical knowledge to explain and demonstrate the many techniques of cartoon animation.
Animation is the process of drawing and photographing a character in successive positions to create lifelike movement. Animators bring life to their drawings, making the viewer believe that the drawings actually think and have feelings.
Cartoon Animation was written by an animator to help you learn how to animate. The pioneers of the art of animation learned many lessons, most through trial and error, and it is this body of knowledge that has established the fundamentals of animation. This book will teach you these fundamentals. Animators must first know how to draw; good drawing is the cornerstone of their success.
The animation process, however, involves much more than just good drawing. This book teaches all the other knowledge and skills animators must have. The second chapter explains how to create movements such as running, walking, dancing, posing, skipping, strutting, and more. Chapter three discusses the finer points of animating a character, including creating key character poses and in-betweens.
Chapter four is all about dialogue, how to create realistic mouth and body movements, and facial expressions while the character is speaking. There are helpful diagrams in this chapter that show mouth positions, along with a thorough explanation of how sounds are made using the throat, tongue, teeth, and lips. Finally, the fifth chapter has clear explanations of a variety of technical topics, including tinting and spacing patterns, background layout drawings, the cartoon storyboard, and the synchronization of camera, background, characters, sound, and music.
Full of expert advice from Preston Blair, as well as helpful drawings and diagrams, Cartoon Animation is a book no animation enthusiast should be without.
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Sort order. My father bought me this book when I was four years old. I now use the book to teach students and I'm It really is to go to book on animation techniques and how to get your characters to act. Sep 14, Justin Hawn marked it as to-read Shelves: The Animator's Survival Kit is without a doubt the first item on the list of all aspiring animators and animation enthusiasts, but Cartoon Animation by Preston Blair is a close second.
It covers the same material seen in the Survival Kit, but just not as extensively; however, Blair spends ample time demonstrating how to construct and design classic Disney and Warner Bros. Great read if you can find it. Jul 26, Nada Muhammad rated it really liked it. Jun 23, Dean rated it it was amazing Shelves: Preston Blair is one of those people that everyone knows without realizing that they know.
He worked under both Disney and MGM, helping to created some of the most memorable cartoons of all time. As such, it is only fitting that he wrote books on the subject. This particular book is well-known in the industry, having been used by animation students for decades. Once I read it, I quickly understood why. Blair very clearly breaks down the movements of animation, something that mystifies many.
How Preston Blair is one of those people that everyone knows without realizing that they know. How do I make a character walk or run? How do I lipsync to dialogue? All these questions and more are answered in this book. Nov 29, Fred rated it it was amazing Shelves: I used to stare at this book instead of listening to the teacher at school.
It's a good book that reminds you of obvious things you might forget when you draw cartoons. Your drawings do look surprisingly different if you follow its advice. Apr 06, Labeba Salameh rated it it was amazing.
Aug 30, Alex Wylie rated it it was amazing. I love this Animation book!!! Mar 11, Anna Martino rated it it was amazing Shelves: If you are interested in animation, this is a good one to start with to understand techniques, terminology, and even practice. May 02, 3moopydelfy rated it really liked it. Jul 27, Max rated it it was amazing Shelves: While he talks about animation principles towards the back of the book, don't write off this book as being useless to anyone else.
Study the charts and the mouth drawings, paying close attention to the studies of the consonant sounds, the vowel sounds, and the diphthong vowel sounds. By studying this entire chapter, you can make your character say anything you wish, while creating the personality you had in mind when you first designed it.
Chapter 4 - Page Chapter 5 - Introduction. This chapter includes clear explanations of many technical topics: The storyboard and script are the foundations for the rest of the animation.
Methods of synchronizing dialogue with character actions and gestures and camera positions are shown on a single chart that ties them all together into smooth, progressive animation. Cycles of planned animation and limited animation cutouts that can save a great amount of time on certain types of animation are shown on pages The use of background pans, overlays, and cels is also explained. Pointers on how to set up and build your own animation studio and camera compound are shown and discussed on page You can make your studio as elaborate as you wish, but a well-functioning studio can also be constructed economically.
Of course, the camera is the most expensive part of the venture, but the camera "truck" is easy to construct.
The most critical part of this construction is that all of the angles between the camera and the filming surface compound top be accurate so that no distortion occurs. This chapter contains all of the vital information needed to get you underway in your studio to develop and produce your own animated film cartoons.
Chapter 5 - Page The animator is the "actor" of the film cartoon. The actor must learn the craft, such as how to walk or move with meaning, to never pause unless there is a reason, and if there is a pause, to pause as long as possible. He must also decide whether to jump into a hold or to cushion into it gradually, when to "freeze" a hold or when to keep up subtle secondary actions to give it a "breath of life", when to start small actions during the hold that anticipate the following move, when to move the eyes to anticipate coming movement, and, finally, after such anticipation, when to jump out of a pose or when to slowly move out.
Such is the craft of the art. The swings and ticks of a metronome can determine the exact speed of the frames of a walk, a run, or any action you visualize. Set the arm at 8 frames and act out a fast walk or run with your fingers. You may then decide that 12 frames are closer to what you need.
Make frame-count marks, as shown above. Then check the clock so thirty frame ticks fit in fifteen seconds. To check the look of even speeds, place your pencil over a straight field, as in figure 12 below simply a line divided evenly by Then move the pencil back and forth, from one end of the field to the other, at a frame tick metronome set at 54, which equals 24 frames per second.
By doing this, you can visually check the look of an even speed. From this test, you will find that it takes one frame lick to move across 12 inches. The pendulum pattern figure 1 is evenly spaced. This pattern occurs in leg and arm movements in walks and runs. The unevenly spaced figures figures 2 and 3 change the action considerably. Figure 2 is slow-out, slow- in, slow-out, etc. Figure 3 is either slowout, fast-in, slow-out, etc.
Figures 4 through 11 are actions of the head or body in walk and run cycles. The recoil drawing is at the base. When lime is spent around this, the weight is accentuated and the creature simply cannot seem to get off the ground.
When the high drawing is accentuated, the creature is so lightweight that he bounces up, floats, and scarcely touches the ground. Walks with character usually have uneven spacing. Figures 4 and 6 are for heavyweights. A lightweight deer would bounce and float like figures 5 and 7. Recoil is bottom, rise to the left midway up, high on top, and contact midway down on the right. Any of these four positions can be accentuated in timing to create character. In figures 10 and 11 the head or the body and the head are moving from side to side in the walk or run action on a pan.
Reverse the direction on these or on figures 8 and 9 and you will get a different character. Often, the best way to move is simply in a straight line as in figures 12 to All patterns may be better when evenly spaced in various accents. Figure 19 happens constantly in live action.
A hand and arm move in an arc, then suddenly jump to a different arc as the result of another body action accent or jerk such as a kick.
On figure 21, a hand and arm or an entire character comes back in anticipation, moves fast, then violently stagger-stops. Figures 22 to 26 are some of the many stagger actions for takes, stops, collisions, crashes, etc.
An evenly spaced series of drawings can be a stagger action: The filmed result and meaning of a spaced move depend on 1 actual measurement, 2 relation to the field size, and 3 relation to the size of the character. The animator has a specific action to do in a certain time or number of frames.
From experience he knows how specific patterns of spacing will work when they measure and path the actions in the character.
He often charts a pattern in advance, but these patterns are usually inherent in the animation structure and they evolve intuitively during animation. A puppet moves as the strings are adjusted. An animated character moves according to spaced-move patterns in the actions. When the animator starts a scene, you can check the looks of even speeds by moving your pencil back and forth across a field as timed by a metronome.
You can figure it out: My advice to the beginner is to first try to develop a sense of timing by animating and film testing a large and a small circle in various speeds in the patterns outlined throughout this book. Then study the action of the patterns and learn to adjust the spacing of the animation to create the exact character action for the specific scene. You can then plan the timing so your animation will do whatever you visualize. You will learn to think of animation in a series of motion picture frames and how to register takes, gestures, actions, and poses.
As shown above, a small move on a small circle has the same relation to the circle as a large move on a large circle. A large move on a large held appears the same on film as a small move on a small field.
Each scene is described in the script for picture and sound. Layout drawings based on the storyboard are made of the background and key character positions. Each frame, foot, and scene has a number. Each music beat, action accent, word sound, and timing detail also has a number. For a drawing to appear "in sync" with a sound accent, the drawing should be exposed two or three times before the sound. Some animators allow for this, but most animate to the same frame as the sound, then shift the entire film two or three frames ahead of the sound track during editing.
Sound accents can be "hit" by any radical change in picture timing, such as sudden starts or stops, jumps, and action reversals or freezes.
Sudden slow spacing or wide spacing in a continuous action can accent a sound.
Accents on walk and run cycles come at the recoil-bottom or high point drawings. Most action and dialogue can be on 2s. When the action is fast with wide spacing, use 1s to avoid too wide, jumpy spacing. The four cels over the background in cartoon films allow four action levels. Also, parts of a character can move on one level 12A- E, as shown on the production sheet "The Lost Kitten" below , while the other parts are held on the next level TV bar sheets as shown above have one foot 16 frames per bar.
Theatrical music bar sheets vary in bar length to fit the musical mood of the film. Dialogue and music are planned in these bar sheets with a stopwatch. Music is then composed and recorded with dialogue and the scene timing may have to be adjusted to fit. Adjustments and changes are a constant in animated films. The animator must time his acting to plan the number of frames for each action. Some watches have footage scales. A second hand on an electric clock, a metronome, or live-action film research can also be used for scene timing.
When the foot is placed on the ground in a pan scene, it moves with the pan moves, as in those indicated on this page below. The "pan" in this case is the movement of the background while the character is walking in the middle of the scene.
The background art is moved a precise distance as required by the character action. For example, the background would be moved more slowly for a walk than for a run. Consequently, foot contact on the background and speed of movement must be precisely coordinated by using the methods shown at the left below.
These moves are related to a stationary centerline. The body and all the parts move in paths of action, these are the usual patterns. The action can move in either direction. As in life, cycles have countless variations, and you can exaggerate or subdue any position or move. Never move a character without meaning. Bring out a gesture, mannerism, or story mood in every cycle.
Two of the cycles below are combined in a double-bounce-strut. Notice the cocky gesture at high points. It is a series of closely related drawings, no time is lost in going to the opposite step gesture.
Funny walks can "make" a film. It is used to produce the considerable film footage of a television cartoon series. A change of pace results from the use of full animation in critical actions of the story and the use of limited animation in dialogue with bursts of full animation for important gestures. Animation, backgrounds with overlay backgrounds, and camera fields and trucks are planned for use in many combinations. Thus, the production work gets more "mileage.
Such animation can be used in the field center with a moving pan as the background.
The same cels placed on moving pegs can move the character through a still background scene. The same cels can also walk into another background, stay centered as the background moves, and then move out when the background stops.
On the other three cel levels in the animation scene, other cycle characters can move at a different speed, in any direction. It is especially adaptable to the type of characters illustrated on page The dialogue system is often more elaborate, as seven heads up and down and seven heads in a sideways move, all around a centered head.
Laughs and giggles are often animated by a laughing, evenly spaced, up-and-down series of such heads in a stagger-timing on the exposure sheet. A dialogue head series can be fitted to a body cycle walking on a pan background. A bottom peg camera device moves the pegs up and down to fit the walking action. Heads can fit characters in a vehicle on a pan. This entire action bounces on the rough road using the same device attached to the bottom peg bar.
Such mechanics are endless. After the cel is placed on camera, the cutout is placed over or under the cel according to a few dot guides on the cel. For example, an elaborate line engraving of an antique auto is cut out and placed under a cel series that animates the wheel action, dust, smoke, and characters seated in the auto. Animation cutouts can be very cost effective in producing animated films. Body poses, with different head attitudes, can be used over and over in multiple combinations.
For example, different arms can be used on the same body, as can mouths, eyes, and noses on a single cel head without having to redraw the entire body for each movement. All parts of these "animation cutouts" can be stored for recall in another scene or film. Here are some examples of the many divisions possible. The same set of character cels can be used in many scones. Each head has a series of four to seven mouth drawings that work on the cel level above the head.
Thus, the head nods in many timings for any amount of dialogue. Here is the order of setting up the parts of a dog that are joined at socket points. Use perspective guidelines on the body when needed - as you do on the head. This is a colored cel made from the cleanup drawing on page The cleanup drawing was enlarged on a copy machine, and then a brush and ink were used to trace it onto the cel.
The cleaned up animation drawing is transferred to a transparent cel celluloid. The drawing can also be photocopied onto the cel. Then the colors are painted on the back of the cel with opaque acrylic paint acrylics are used because they will adhere to the cot. After the cot is colored, it is placed over the background and photographed with the camera. This process is explained in more detail on page Most cartoon cels are inked with a pen, but the brush can be used to give a heavier, more accented line the drawings on these two pages were done with a brush.
If you are designing an original character, experiment with its coloration by using transparent watercolors on photocopies or enlargements of your cleanup drawings. Color many drawings until you perfect the color scheme, and then make acrylic-colored cels using the watercolor paints as guides. You can make colored backgrounds for the cels using both watercolors and the opaque acrylics the way studios do.
Background texture can be created with a wet sponge and opaque acrylic paint. On this page below is an example of a storyboard that is the basic plan of an animated cartoon film. It resembles a page in the newspaper comics. Artists in a story department develop the story line of the film by attaching these story sketches onto a large blackboard-size board with pushpins.
The storymen will replace drawings and re-edit the storyboard constantly as they visualize and originate additions and changes to add humor to the story. The inanimate object that has come to life the tree is another type of cartoon character to add to this book. Here the trees engage in the full verbosity of a violent argument, and the storymen must visualize the continuity. Then, the film director and staff take a hand in the development, followed by the animator who often puts in the vital finishing touches and changes.
It is a constant creative process-at least at the important studios-especially on features, The storyman has to know staging and drama, he has to figure out and anticipate what the audience is thinking and then surprise, amuse, or spellbind the viewer. Such is the simple recipe for a blockbuster epic. Story artists also visualize the art style of the film.
Storyboards may incorporate an occasional picture done in full-color watercolor or pastel that establishes the color and the background treatment. A team of artists usually develops the storyboard after the idea is acted out by the storyman before an audience in a conference of evaluation.
This helps the creativity process tremendously. For example, while looking at the storyboard below, a storyman might add picture panels between the first two that visualize an interesting or amusing way that the golden hatchet was obtained by our hero. Working with the film director, a layout artist draws each scene for the animator. He makes pencil drawings of the background and the key animation positions. These layout drawings establish the relationship between the background and the animation art.
In the example here, the drawing of the witch in the distance is separate from the layout drawing of the village. The animator and film director meet to discuss the scene. First they study the various elements of the scene: Then they usually review the art that leads into it. Finally, the director explains what he visualizes for the scene and how it fits into the rest of the story and film production.
For example, a small village is undergoing an aerial attack from the wicked witch, it is evening. The blue cast of evening is the dominant color of the scene.
Starting as a small dot in the distance, the witch enters the near sky on her broomstick, screaming and cackling hysterically. Lightning flashes as the whole scene jumps to a warm daylight color for a few frames, this is followed by a clap of thunder, which intensifies as the witch winds her way forward, coming down the street from the upper left. Panicked villagers run through the streets, hiding in doorways - here and there people close their shutters.
Suddenly, with a fiendish scream, the witch rockets to the foreground for a moment, her head turned away as she navigates the turn and screams at the villagers. Then, twisting down the street toward the upper right, she turns left to fly around the chimney in the center of the scene. The fiendish hag disappears behind the roof at the top of the scene for a moment and then reappears in the sky on the opposite side. Turning forward, she hurtles up the narrow street canyon, pursuing the stumbling and falling villagers.
Next, preceded by a flash of light and a clap of thunder, the witch gyrates to the foreground to scream at the viewer, as pictured in the drawing at far right, Then turning back to the village, she streaks down the street to the right, twisting and turning around the chimneys, rooftops, and streets, finally rock sting into the far sky, becoming a mere moving speck above the distant trees. Today, it is possible to animate these active villagers and the distant witch on a much larger scale.
The scene is first divided into sections, these sections can be combined and reduced to the scale above on photocopied cels modern Disney feature animation demonstrates a computer-assisted process. To do this type of animation, you need four layers of cel animation - on either a single field or multiple fields long cels - which are on either top or bottom pegs, a pan background that can move right or left on top or bottom pegs, and either top or bottom floating pegs attached to moving flaps that overlay the background or cel.
This setup allows for adjustments for mastery and range, as well as the greatest variety of camera shots see page By redesigning the background of this witch scene into a basic background and two overlay backgrounds you can create a three-dimensional effect. The three-dimensional effect is created by moving the second overlay quickly, the first overlay fairly slowly, and the basic background even more slowly. The dramatics of the scene can be heightened by following the witch with truck movements from her entrance to the hurtling up the street to scream at the viewer.
In a simpler version, the witch is on a single field cel and flies from the distance to the foreground and remains in the same relative position shown across the scene. The no. The distant hills could be the background. The foreground and the foreground inn and tree could be two separate overlays. They could separate during a truck-down to give depth. Cels can be separated vertically to create a natural movement of objects and create a feeling of depth during a camera truck-down toward the cels.
The vertical movement up or down of the camera on the frame is called a "truck". A truck movement is indicated using the field center location of the chart see below and page The truck move is charted on the chartmap a portion of which is shown, actual size, below that can be registered below the camera on the compound, if necessary. To help you better understand trucks and fields, the trucks shown below are designed to appear on film absolutely even, with no sudden moves or hesitations.
A truck is indicated as per field center location on the chart on page , like a map north, south, east, and west. The truck is charted on a section of the chart shown actual size, below.
This truck is down or up between a no. Still the path of a truck can curve or even stagger. The field can tip to any degree or it can turn around. Truck moves are usually evenly spaced on the charted path in red with a slight slow in and slow-out. To help you grasp the meaning of trucks and fields, here is a truck that is figured to appear on film absolutely even.
Each move reduces the field by the same percentage. The fields look like the framework of a house. Even steps down the road are in the same configuration. Use diagonals, as shown, to locate such positions in perspective work. Now when you animate in these fields, you can see that the same spaced move in your animation art will be a different length and speed in each separate field.
The same pan move is also slower in the large fields and faster in the small fields. Under the realistic surface of every picture are abstract principles of composition that are the structure and foundation on which the picture is built, the decorative pattern of the picture, and the means of telling a story or expressing a dramatic mood. Thus, composition has a triple function. Artists operate intuitively with composition. Many draw without the power of knowing the composition principles they use, they draw without recourse to inference or reasoning but with a kind of innate or instinctive knowledge of composition.
This was the case with Michelangelo, whereas Leonardo da Vinci composed with knowledge. An understanding of composition principles is extremely useful to an animator when he or she moves and poses the actors in the stage set. The animation is the center of interest in the total picture. In all types of art there are abstract elements that support and point to this center.
In the example here, the abstractions of the fox and the raccoon fit and take advantage of the circular rhythms red and the vertical-horizontal-diagonal composition blue. So watch the perspective in the set as the actor moves with meaning and "play all of your cards". As the camera trucks down and around the no. The bear and the raccoon seen below in a walk cycle animate through the scene, moving from right to left. The pan background top moves to the right under the bear and raccoon long cars.
Above these cels an overlay background of the large tree moves right at twice the speed or spacing of the pan background. Above the tree overlay, a second overlay background moves right at three times the speed of the pan.
Thus there are three different background pieces. Each moves at a different speed, giving the scene an illusion of reality, with great depth and distance. For instance, close trees move faster than distant trees. Variations in pan overlay speeds are plotted using actual perspective moves.
Backgrounds can be several fields in length or a cycle background is planned with three or more fields, such as the first and last fields, painted exactly alike. Thus, the background can be jumped between these fields in a cycle.
Cycles like this bear and raccoon that move through a scene are on long calls that allow a full, clear field not indicated on each side of the characters. If a drawing is used in one peg position, it is usually put on a single field cel.
In planned animation for TV, many scenes are made from this artwork. Other pans are shot at smaller fields. Still scenes are made from sections of the background with other overlays and other animation used.
The bear and raccoon cycle walk through other backgrounds. Overlays are cutouts, or the paintings are made directly on the cel with vinyl-acrylic paint. This water-based paint adheres to acetate, it is used for all animation cel production and for the artwork.
As shown on this page below, the back of the animation cel is painted with this opaque paint. Originally, the drawings were traced with pen or brush on the front of the cel with acetate inks.
A state-of-the-art photocopy machine is used to transfer most animation art to cels using fumes instead of heat to fix the image on the cel. Two types of machines are used, and the animator should know what each offers, just as he should know what the animation film camera can do. The drawings are photographed on film by an animation camera, and then this film is used to mass-produce cels. Thus, the rotoscope is obsolete.
Trucks and all operations of an animation camera can be done by this versatile camera. A camera "truck" is the vertical movement of the camera and the compound adjustments needed. Compound moves alone are called "cameramoves.