Biodegradable plastic pdf


Citation: UNEP () Biodegradable Plastics and Marine Litter. Misconceptions, concerns and impacts on marine environments. United Nations Environment. PDF | The main aim of our project is to develop materials and packaging that Bioplastics from milk is a new biodegradable foam plastic which. PDF | Synthetic polymers are important in many branches of industry Some biodegradable plastics that have been commercialized are starch.

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Biodegradable Plastic Pdf

Biodegradable Plastics – Developments and Environmental Impacts . Biodegradable plastics have an expanding range of potential applications, and driven by. Biodegradation. Biodegradation or biotic degradation is a specific property of certain plastic materials - that is, of the polymers these materials are made of. either biodegradable plastics (i.e., plastics produced from fossil biodegradable plastics and bio-based plastics is shown in Figure 1.

Types of biodegradable plastics and their manufacturing processes are described. Research focusing on cassava starch incorporation into biodegradable plastics is summarized. These properties include resistance to chemical reactions, specially enzymatic reactions. For example, it can take up to one hundred years to degrade only a few grams of plastic such as polyethylene under normal environmental conditions. Degradation at high temperature, such as in pyrolysis burning tends to cause emission of toxic fumes. Plastic accumulation in the environment thus creates tremendous problems for the world, presently and in the future. Environmental problems caused by plastics include changes to the carbon dioxide cycle, problems in composting, and increased toxic emissions. Stimulated by environmental concerns, scientists are now concentrating on ways to develop plastic use more efficiently. Starch, a natural polymer, is biodegradable and as such can play an important role in the biodegradable plastic manufacturing process. It is also inexpensive and renewable. In tropical countries cassava starch offers opportunities due to its purity, clearness of its paste and low cost of production. This starch also posseses properties that enable it to be blended with other expensive polymers required for producing biodegradable plastic. Projections for the requirement of biodegradable plastic, by the year , is 1. Table 1. Projections of world consumption of biodegradable plastics in the year

Michigan Biotechnology Institute, Figure 2. Extrusion of starch foam. Cutter Cassava foams Extruder high pressure high temperature controlled moisture content a b Figure 3. Starch foam: Cassava starch has been successfully expanded under extrusion conditions. Due to its low bulk density, a little modification is needed so that its moisture content is increased. Twin screw extrusion is recommended for direct expansion of cassava starches.

Biodegradable plastic

Cassava starch can also be used as the raw material for plate expanded or baking products. The bulk density is reported in the range of 0.

First, special machinery is required, such as high shear extruder not plastic extruder , continuous molding machine with high temperature continuous waffle moulds using high pressure and temperature.

Thus, the investment cost for the machinery is high. Distribution of the products is limited, due to its rigidity and short shelf life. Further, these products can not be applied to high moisture conditions. Lamination with other polymers, to improve shelf life and tolerance to high moisture conditions, will increase production cost, and such polymers have to be approved before using as a food packaging material.

The blending of polymers with starch under controlled conditions leads to co- polymerization that in turn results in high molecular polymers with thermoplastic properties. Though the mixing or blending needs special machinery, such as an extruder, the products polymer blend can be handled as easily as conventional plastic resin.

Union Carbide is the biggest manufacturer Table 2.

Biodegradable plastic.pdf

Many research laboratories in J apan claim that polylactic acid can be produced from a condensation-polymerization reaction of free lactic acid from fermentation of starch. These products offers the opportunity for a polymer blend totally derived from starch-based materials. However due to its solubility, applications are limited.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates PHA This group of products are obtained from microorganisms through a fermentation process. Properties can be thermoplastic to elastomeric depending on the monomers used. The most popular product of this group is poly 3—hydroxybutyrate PHV. The manufacturers and prices of polymers are shown in Table 2. Manufacturers, capacity and cost of biodegradable polymers.

Technology Research Lab. Poly lactic acid Lacea Not available Source: Narayan, Starch in the granular form Mixing or blending starch with limited moisture content causes less loss of structure of the starch granule. After blending polymers with granular starch, the structure consists of a continuous polymer phase with starch granules embedded and reinforcing the network.

This increases the strength, water absorption and vapor permeability, and decreases the production cost Figure 4. Gelatinized starch By controlling the moisture content, starch granule structure can be totally gelatinized at the same melting temperature as the polymer; thus, the two are blended together.

This affords improved properties of elongation and tensile strength to the polymer Figure 4. Thermoplastic starch Under severe extrusion conditions, low moisture content, high temperature and pressure, starch can be melted. This thermoplastic starch is then a single component continuous phase.

Thermoplastic starch was patented by Werner-Pfleiderer Co. Modified starch Modification of starch, such as addition of ester groups, to manipulate its properties supports the blending mechanism.

The manufacturing process is shown in Figures 5 and 6 Cassava starch blended with polycaprolactone PCL was developed in Pranamuda et al. The effect of varying the proportion of cassava starch to PCL has also been investigated Chollakup et al. Other attempts to improve final product quality, such as irradiation treatment Chollakup et al. Characteristic of granular and gelatinized starch as blending material for polymer blend. Gould et al. Biodegradable starch plastic manufacturing process.

Extrusion process of biodegradable plastic. Table 3. Chollakup et al. Before radiation - PCL Figure 7. Table 5. Sriroth et al. The future polymers will be from fermentation processes that give more consumer confidence.

This will lead to the most reasonable production cost. Despite the superior properties of conventional plastics, biodegradable plastics will be required in increasing amounts in certain markets. Major polymer producers are therefore increasing their research and development investments in this area.

Chotineeranat, K. Piyachomkwan, Y. Prachasitthisak and K. Effect of gamma radiation on cassava starch, polycaprolactone and mechanical properties of their biodegradation blends. Biotechnology for a Self-sufficient Economy. Nov , Chollakup, R. J arerat and K. Inclusion of silk protein in cassava starch and polycaprolactone blend.

Noomhorm, K. Sriroth, K.

Piyachomkwan and Y. J une 3 -4, Daniell, H. Biopolymer production in microorganisms and plants.

Chemistry and Industry. J uly Gould, J. Gordon, L. Dexter and C. Biodegradation of starch -containing plastics. Glass and G. Swift Eds. Agricultural and Synthetic Polymers: Biodegradability and Utilization.

The American Chemical Society. Michigan Biotechnology Institute. Furthermore, it is important to realize the youth of alternative technologies. Technology to produce PHA, for instance, is still in development today, and energy consumption can be further reduced by eliminating the fermentation step, or by utilizing food waste as feedstock.

For instance, manufacturing of PHAs by fermentation in Brazil enjoys a favorable energy consumption scheme where bagasse is used as source of renewable energy [ citation needed ].

Many biodegradable polymers that come from renewable resources i. For the US to meet its current output of plastics production with BPs, it would require 1. Federal Trade Commission and the U.

EPA set standards for biodegradability.

ASTM International defines methods to test for biodegradable plastic, both anaerobically and aerobically , as well as in marine environments. The specific subcommittee responsibility for overseeing these standards falls on the Committee D Standard specifications create a pass or fail scenario whereas standard test methods identify the specific testing parameters for facilitating specific time frames and toxicity of biodegradable tests on plastics.

Two testing methods are defined for anaerobic environments: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For information on plastics derived from renewable raw resources biomass , see Bioplastic. For information on plastics designed to biodegrade in human bodies, see Biodegradable polymer. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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You can help by adding to it. August Progress in Polymer Science.

Retrieved September 21, How Stuff Works. Retrieved Biosphere Biodegradable Plastic. European Bioplastics e.

Australasian Bioplastics Association Inc. Its Promises and Consequences". DUJS Online. Oxo-degradable plastic bags carry more ecological harm than good. The Guardian. Methods for assessment of biodegradability of plastic films in soil. Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene. Stab 81, Polymer Degradation and Stability. Network 18, 19 Mar. Environmental Research Letters. Scientific American. Archived from the original on Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 8 Sep Nature Biotechnology.

Polymer Degradation and Stability , 80, Biodegradable polymer life cycle assessment, Process Economics Program, Oko-inventare von Energiesystemen, third ed. Scientific American , , Microbes manufacture plastic from food waste". Industrial Biotechnology , 3, Published standards under D Barcode printer Barcode reader Bottling line Calender Can seamer Cartoning machine Case sealer Check weigher Conveyor system Extended core stretch wrapper Filler Heat gun Heat sealer Industrial robot Injection molding machine Label printer applicator Lineshaft roller conveyor Logistics automation Material-handling equipment Mechanical brake stretch wrapper Multihead weigher Orbital stretch wrapper Packaging machinery Palletizer Rotary wheel blow molding systems Shrink tunnel Staple gun Tape dispenser Turntable stretch wrapper Vertical form fill sealing machine.

Biodegradation Environmental engineering Glass recycling Industrial ecology Life-cycle assessment Litter Packaging waste Paper recycling Plastic recycling Recycling Reusable packaging Reverse logistics Source reduction Sustainable packaging Waste management.

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