Short Biography William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare (). English poet and playwright – Shakespeare is widely considered to be the greatest. William Shakespeare Short Biography. This is a short biography of William Shakespeare. It includes the major facts about his life and work. William. Shakespeare (). England's genius. Compact Performer he was born in Stratford-Upon-Avon, on 23rd April ;his father was a glove-.
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William. S h ak esp eare: an overview of his life, times, and work an NAC English Theatre company William Shakespeare: Who was he, and why do we study him? .1 .. The short answer is that we don't know. William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April – 23 April ) was an English poet, playwright and Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; this has stimulated .. turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short sentences are set against one Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable .. surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poetic style in which long and short.
After William in they had a son called Gilbert in He died in They also had another daughter called Joan like her dead sister in and a daughter called Anne in In they had a son called Richard he died in In they had a son called Edmund he died in When he was 18 William Shakespeare married a woman named Anne Hathaway.
They married in November and their daughter Susanna was baptized in May On 2 February the Shakespeare's next children, a twin boy and girl, Hamnet and Judith were baptized. However Hamnet died when he was William Shakespeare probably went to Stratford Grammar School. However we do not know what he did for a living when he was a young man but in about he went to London. He became an actor and a playwright. By William Shakespeare was making a name for himself.
Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in , two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell , published a more definitive text known as the First Folio , a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied, performed, and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare , an alderman and a successful glover glove-maker originally from Snitterfield , and Mary Arden , the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer.
His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were largely similar: At the age of 18, Shakespeare married year-old Anne Hathaway.
The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November The next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in The exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term and 9 October Nicholas Rowe , Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy.
Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. It is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of his plays were on the London stage by Scholars differ on the exact meaning of Greene's words,   but most agree that Greene was accusing Shakespeare of reaching above his rank in trying to match such university-educated writers as Christopher Marlowe , Thomas Nashe , and Greene himself the so-called " University Wits ".
As used here, Johannes Factotum "Jack of all trades" refers to a second-rate tinkerer with the work of others, rather than the more common "universal genius". Greene's attack is the earliest surviving mention of Shakespeare's work in the theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any time from the mids to just before Greene's remarks.
In , a partnership of members of the company built their own theatre on the south bank of the River Thames , which they named the Globe. In , the partnership also took over the Blackfriars indoor theatre. Extant records of Shakespeare's property downloads and investments indicate that his association with the company made him a wealthy man,  and in , he bought the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place , and in , invested in a share of the parish tithes in Stratford.
Some of Shakespeare's plays were published in quarto editions, beginning in , and by , his name had become a selling point and began to appear on the title pages. Throughout his career, Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford. In , the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St.
Helen's, Bishopsgate , north of the River Thames. There, he rented rooms from a French Huguenot named Christopher Mountjoy, a maker of ladies' wigs and other headgear.
Rowe was the first biographer to record the tradition, repeated by Johnson , that Shakespeare retired to Stratford "some years before his death". Retirement from all work was uncommon at that time. Mountjoy , a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary.
Shakespeare died on 23 April , at the age of No extant contemporary source explains how or why he died.
Half a century later, John Ward , the vicar of Stratford, wrote in his notebook: Of the tributes from fellow authors, one refers to his relatively sudden death: He was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in ,  and Judith had married Thomas Quiney , a vintner , two months before Shakespeare's death. Thomas was ordered by the church court to do public penance, which would have caused much shame and embarrassment for the Shakespeare family.
Shakespeare bequeathed the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna  under stipulations that she pass it down intact to "the first son of her body". Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death. Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be man spares thes stones, And cvrst be he moves my bones. Modern spelling: Some time before , a funerary monument was erected in his memory on the north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing.
Its plaque compares him to Nestor , Socrates , and Virgil. Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world, including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others at some point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostly early and late in his career. Textual evidence also supports the view that several of the plays were revised by other writers after their original composition.
The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI , written in the early s during a vogue for historical drama. Shakespeare's plays are difficult to date precisely, however,   and studies of the texts suggest that Titus Andronicus , The Comedy of Errors , The Taming of the Shrew , and The Two Gentlemen of Verona may also belong to Shakespeare's earliest period. Shakespeare's early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tight double plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mids to the romantic atmosphere of his most acclaimed comedies.
His characters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly between comic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrative variety of his mature work. Romeo and Juliet , the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, and death;   and Julius Caesar —based on Sir Thomas North 's translation of Plutarch 's Parallel Lives —which introduced a new kind of drama.
In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called " problem plays " Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well and a number of his best known tragedies.
The titular hero of one of Shakespeare's greatest tragedies, Hamlet , has probably been discussed more than any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famous soliloquy which begins " To be or not to be; that is the question ".
According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play-offers neither its good characters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty". His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus , contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy and completed three more major plays: Less bleak than the tragedies, these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the s, but they end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragic errors.
It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays.
The title page of the edition of Titus Andronicus reveals that the play had been acted by three different troupes. Although the performance records are patchy, the King's Men performed seven of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November , and 31 October , including two performances of The Merchant of Venice. In Cymbeline , for example, Jupiter descends "in thunder and lightning, sitting upon an eagle: The ghosts fall on their knees.
It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for the first time. Alfred Pollard termed some of the pre versions as " bad quartos " because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbled texts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers.
In the case of King Lear , however, while most modern editions do conflate them, the folio version is so different from the quarto that the Oxford Shakespeare prints them both, arguing that they cannot be conflated without confusion. In and , when the theatres were closed because of plague , Shakespeare published two narrative poems on sexual themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.
He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. In Venus and Adonis , an innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus ; while in The Rape of Lucrece , the virtuous wife Lucrece is raped by the lustful Tarquin. A third narrative poem, A Lover's Complaint , in which a young woman laments her seduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition of the Sonnets in Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote A Lover's Complaint. Critics consider that its fine qualities are marred by leaden effects.
In , two early drafts of sonnets and appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim , published under Shakespeare's name but without his permission.
Published in , the Sonnets were the last of Shakespeare's non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars are not certain when each of the sonnets was composed, but evidence suggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for a private readership. It remains unclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial "I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlocked his heart".
The edition was dedicated to a "Mr. It is not known whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by the publisher, Thomas Thorpe , whose initials appear at the foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr.
Shakespeare's first plays were written in the conventional style of the day. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama. The grand speeches in Titus Andronicus , in the view of some critics, often hold up the action, for example; and the verse in The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been described as stilted.
However, Shakespeare soon began to adapt the traditional styles to his own purposes. The opening soliloquy of Richard III has its roots in the self-declaration of Vice in medieval drama.
At the same time, Richard's vivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespeare's mature plays. Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself.
Shakespeare's standard poetic form was blank verse , composed in iambic pentameter. In practice, this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of ten syllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. The blank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his later ones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, and finish at the end of lines , with the risk of monotony.
This technique releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as Julius Caesar and Hamlet. Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoil in Hamlet's mind: Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting That would not let me sleep.
Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly— And prais'd be rashness for it—let us know Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well After Hamlet , Shakespeare varied his poetic style further, particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies.
The literary critic A. Bradley described this style as "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, less regular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".
These included run-on lines , irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structure and length. The listener is challenged to complete the sense.
Shakespeare combined poetic genius with a practical sense of the theatre. This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.
He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however. In Shakespeare's late romances , he deliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised the illusion of theatre.
Shakespeare's work has made a lasting impression on later theatre and literature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential of characterisation , plot, language , and genre.
The Romantic poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, though with little success. Critic George Steiner described all English verse dramas from Coleridge to Tennyson as "feeble variations on Shakespearean themes.
These include three operas by Giuseppe Verdi , Macbeth , Otello and Falstaff , whose critical standing compares with that of the source plays. In Shakespeare's day, English grammar, spelling, and pronunciation were less standardised than they are now,  and his use of language helped shape modern English. Shakespeare was not revered in his lifetime, but he received a large amount of praise. Between the Restoration of the monarchy in and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue.
A series of scholarly editions of his work, notably those of Samuel Johnson in and Edmond Malone in , added to his growing reputation. During the Romantic era , Shakespeare was praised by the poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge , and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel translated his plays in the spirit of German Romanticism. The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, far from discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service of the avant-garde.
The Expressionists in Germany and the Futurists in Moscow mounted productions of his plays. Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht devised an epic theatre under the influence of Shakespeare. The poet and critic T. Eliot argued against Shaw that Shakespeare's "primitiveness" in fact made him truly modern. Wilson Knight and the school of New Criticism , led a movement towards a closer reading of Shakespeare's imagery.
In the s, a wave of new critical approaches replaced modernism and paved the way for " post-modern " studies of Shakespeare. He encloses us because we see with his fundamental perceptions.
Shakespeare's works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio of , listed according to their folio classification as comedies , histories , and tragedies. In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late comedies as romances , and though many scholars prefer to call them tragicomedies , Dowden's term is often used. Boas coined the term " problem plays " to describe four plays: Around years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him.
Shakespeare conformed to the official state religion, [k] but his private views on religion have been the subject of debate. Shakespeare's will uses a Protestant formula, and he was a confirmed member of the Church of England , where he was married, his children were baptised, and where he is buried.
Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeare's family were Catholics, at a time when practising Catholicism in England was against the law. The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed by his father, John Shakespeare , found in in the rafters of his former house in Henley Street. However, the document is now lost and scholars differ as to its authenticity.
Scholars find evidence both for and against Shakespeare's Catholicism, Protestantism, or lack of belief in his plays, but the truth may be impossible to prove. Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. At 18, he married year-old Anne Hathaway , who was pregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born six months later on 26 May Over the centuries, some readers have posited that Shakespeare's sonnets are autobiographical,  and point to them as evidence of his love for a young man.
Others read the same passages as the expression of intense friendship rather than romantic love. No written contemporary description of Shakespeare's physical appearance survives, and no evidence suggests that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshout engraving , which Ben Jonson approved of as a good likeness,  and his Stratford monument provide perhaps the best evidence of his appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authentic Shakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving pictures depicted Shakespeare.
That demand also led to the production of several fake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings, and relabelling of portraits of other people.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the poet and playwright. For other persons of the same name, see William Shakespeare disambiguation. For other uses of "Shakespeare", see Shakespeare disambiguation. English playwright and poet. Stratford-upon-Avon , Warwickshire , England. Elizabethan Jacobean. Anne Hathaway m. John Shakespeare father Mary Arden mother.
Main article: Life of William Shakespeare. Main articles: Shakespeare's plays and William Shakespeare's collaborations. Shakespeare in performance.
Shakespeare's sonnets. Thou art more lovely and more temperate Shakespeare's style. Shakespeare's influence. Shakespeare's reputation and Timeline of Shakespeare criticism. Further information: Shakespeare bibliography and Chronology of Shakespeare's plays. Shakespeare authorship question. Religious views of William Shakespeare. Sexuality of William Shakespeare.
Portraits of Shakespeare. Under the Gregorian calendar , adopted in Catholic countries in , Shakespeare died on 3 May. In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard". See Shakespeare's collaborations and Shakespeare Apocrypha for further details.
See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays for further details. This motto is still used by Warwickshire County Council , in reference to Shakespeare. Rowse , the 20th-century Shakespeare scholar, was emphatic: His will made that perfectly clear—in facts, puts it beyond dispute, for it uses the Protestant formula.
Ackroyd, Peter The Biography. Adams, Joseph Quincy A Life of William Shakespeare. Houghton Mifflin. Baldwin, T. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois Press.
Barroll, Leeds Politics, Plague, and Shakespeare's Theater: The Stuart Years. Cornell University Press. Bate, Jonathan The Soul of the Age. BBC News. Retrieved 23 April Bednarz, James P. In Cheney, Patrick Gerard. The Cambridge Companion to Christopher Marlowe. Cambridge University Press. Bentley, G. A Biographical Handbook.
New Haven: Yale University Press. Berry, Ralph Retirement and death Around , at the age of 49, he retired to Stratford , where he died three years later.
Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive. He died on 23 April , at the age of He died within a month of signing his will, a document which he begins by describing himself as being in "perfect health".
In his will, Shakespeare left the bulk of his large estate to his elder daughter Susanna. His work Shakespeare produced most of his known work between and His early plays were mainly comedies and histories and these works remain regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres.