Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. Translated by. Acharya Buddharakkhita. The Dhammapada: The Buddha's Path of Wisdom. The Dhammapada. Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. PRINT VERSION ONLY. Translated by Acharya Buddharakkhita. The Dhammapada: The Buddha's Path of Wisdom. site: ruthenpress.info Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. Ven. Thanissaro, Bhikkhu. Dhammapada. A Translation. Dhammapada. A Translation .
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The Dhammapada, an anthology of verses attributed to the Buddha, has long been This translation of the Dhammapada is an attempt to render the verses into. The Dhammapada A Collection of Verses Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller From: The Sacred Books of. That the Pali Dhammapada is at present the best known of this class of I bought that day was an English translation of the Dhammapada complete with.
He whose appetites are stilled, who is not absorbed in enjoyment, who has perceived void and unconditioned freedom Nirvana , his path is difficult to understand, like that of birds in the air. The gods even envy him whose senses, like horses well broken in by the driver, have been subdued, who is free from pride, and free from appetites. Such a one who does his duty is tolerant like the earth, like Indra's bolt; he is like a lake without mud; no new births are in store for him.
His thought is quiet, quiet are his word and deed, when he has obtained freedom by true knowledge, when he has thus become a quiet man.
The man who is free from credulity, but knows the uncreated, who has cut all ties, removed all temptations, renounced all desires, he is the greatest of men. In a hamlet or in a forest, in the deep water or on the dry land, wherever venerable persons Arhanta dwell, that place is delightful. Forests are delightful; where the world finds no delight, there the passionless will find delight, for they look not for pleasures. Even though a speech be a thousand of words , but made up of senseless words, one word of sense is better, which if a man hears, he becomes quiet.
Even though a Gatha poem be a thousand of words , but made up of senseless words, one word of a Gatha is better, which if a man hears, he becomes quiet. Though a man recite a hundred Gathas made up of senseless words, one word of the law is better, which if a man hears, he becomes quiet.
If one man conquer in battle a thousand times thousand men, and if another conquer himself, he is the greatest of conquerors. One's own self conquered is better than all other people; not even a god, a Gandharva, not Mara with Brahman could change into defeat the victory of a man who has vanquished himself, and always lives under restraint. If a man for a hundred years sacrifice month after month with a thousand, and if he but for one moment pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded in true knowledge , better is that homage than sacrifice for a hundred years.
If a man for a hundred years worship Agni fire in the forest, and if he but for one moment pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded in true knowledge , better is that homage than sacrifice for a hundred years.
Whatever a man sacrifice in this world as an offering or as an oblation for a whole year in order to gain merit, the whole of it is not worth a quarter a farthing ; reverence shown to the righteous is better. He who always greets and constantly reveres the aged, four things will increase to him, viz. But he who lives a hundred years, vicious and unrestrained, a life of one day is better if a man is virtuous and reflecting.
And he who lives a hundred years, ignorant and unrestrained, a life of one day is better if a man is wise and reflecting. And he who lives a hundred years, idle and weak, a life of one day is better if a man has attained firm strength. And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing beginning and end, a life of one day is better if a man sees beginning and end. And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the immortal place, a life of one day is better if a man sees the immortal place.
And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing the highest law, a life of one day is better if a man sees the highest law. Chapter IX Evil If a man would hasten towards the good, he should keep his thought away from evil; if a man does what is good slothfully, his mind delights in evil. If a man commits a sin, let him not do it again; let him not delight in sin: If a man does what is good, let him do it again; let him delight in it: Even an evil-doer sees happiness as long as his evil deed has not ripened; but when his evil deed has ripened, then does the evil-doer see evil.
Even a good man sees evil days, as long as his good deed has not ripened; but when his good deed has ripened, then does the good man see happy days. Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in his heart, It will not come nigh unto me. Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled; the fool becomes full of evil, even if he gather it little by little. Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his heart, It will not come nigh unto me. Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled; the wise man becomes full of good, even if he gather it little by little.
Let a man avoid evil deeds, as a merchant, if he has few companions and carries much wealth, avoids a dangerous road; as a man who loves life avoids poison. He who has no wound on his hand, may touch poison with his hand; poison does not affect one who has no wound; nor is there evil for one who does not commit evil. If a man offend a harmless, pure, and innocent person, the evil falls back upon that fool, like light dust thrown up against the wind.
Some people are born again; evil-doers go to hell; righteous people go to heaven; those who are free from all worldly desires attain Nirvana. Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, not if we enter into the clefts of the mountains, is there known a spot in the whole world where death could not overcome the mortal.
Chapter X Punishment All men tremble at punishment, all men fear death; remember that you are like unto them, and do not kill, nor cause slaughter. All men tremble at punishment, all men love life; remember that thou art like unto them, and do not kill, nor cause slaughter. He who seeking his own happiness punishes or kills beings who also long for happiness, will not find happiness after death.
He who seeking his own happiness does not punish or kill beings who also long for happiness, will find happiness after death. Do not speak harshly to anybody; those who are spoken to will answer thee in the same way. Angry speech is painful, blows for blows will touch thee. If, like a shattered metal plate gong , thou utter not, then thou hast reached Nirvana; contention is not known to thee.
As a cowherd with his staff drives his cows into the stable, so do Age and Death drive the life of men.
A fool does not know when he commits his evil deeds: He who inflicts pain on innocent and harmless persons, will soon come to one of these ten states: He will have cruel suffering, loss, injury of the body, heavy affliction, or loss of mind, Or a misfortune coming from the king, or a fearful accusation, or loss of relations, or destruction of treasures, Or lightning-fire will burn his houses; and when his body is destroyed, the fool will go to hell.
Not nakedness, not platted hair, not dirt, not fasting, or lying on the earth, not rubbing with dust, not sitting motionless, can purify a mortal who has not overcome desires. He who, though dressed in fine apparel, exercises tranquillity, is quiet, subdued, restrained, chaste, and has ceased to find fault with all other beings, he indeed is a Brahmana, an ascetic sramana , a friar bhikshu. Is there in this world any man so restrained by humility that he does not mind reproof, as a well-trained horse the whip?
Like a well-trained horse when touched by the whip, be ye active and lively, and by faith, by virtue, by energy, by meditation, by discernment of the law you will overcome this great pain of reproof , perfect in knowledge and in behaviour, and never forgetful.
Well-makers lead the water wherever they like ; fletchers bend the arrow; carpenters bend a log of wood; good people fashion themselves. Chapter XI Old Age How is there laughter, how is there joy, as this world is always burning? Why do you not seek a light, ye who are surrounded by darkness? Look at this dressed-up lump, covered with wounds, joined together, sickly, full of many thoughts, which has no strength, no hold!
This body is wasted, full of sickness, and frail; this heap of corruption breaks to pieces, life indeed ends in death.
Those white bones, like gourds thrown away in the autumn, what pleasure is there in looking at them? After a stronghold has been made of the bones, it is covered with flesh and blood, and there dwell in it old age and death, pride and deceit. The brilliant chariots of kings are destroyed, the body also approaches destruction, but the virtue of good people never approaches destruction,--thus do the good say to the good. A man who has learnt little, grows old like an ox; his flesh grows, but his knowledge does not grow.
Looking for the maker of this tabernacle, I shall have to run through a course of many births, so long as I do not find him ; and painful is birth again and again. But now, maker of the tabernacle, thou hast been seen; thou shalt not make up this tabernacle again.
All thy rafters are broken, thy ridge-pole is sundered; the mind, approaching the Eternal visankhara, nirvana , has attained to the extinction of all desires. Men who have not observed proper discipline, and have not gained treasure in their youth, perish like old herons in a lake without fish.
Men who have not observed proper discipline, and have not gained treasure in their youth, lie, like broken bows, sighing after the past. Chapter XII Self If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful. Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach others; thus a wise man will not suffer.
If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may subdue others ; one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue. Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find. The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self-bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a precious stone. He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it surrounds.
Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do. The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable Arahat , of the elect Ariya , of the virtuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed.
By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself one is purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify another. Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great; let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty. Do not follow the evil law! Do not live on in thoughtlessness!
Do not follow false doctrine! Be not a friend of the world. Rouse thyself! Follow the law of virtue! The virtuous rests in bliss in this world and in the next. Follow the law of virtue; do not follow that of sin.
Look upon the world as a bubble, look upon it as a mirage: Come, look at this glittering world, like unto a royal chariot; the foolish are immersed in it, but the wise do not touch it. He who formerly was reckless and afterwards became sober, brightens up this world, like the moon when freed from clouds.
He whose evil deeds are covered by good deeds, brightens up this world, like the moon when freed from clouds. This world is dark, few only can see here; a few only go to heaven, like birds escaped from the net. The swans go on the path of the sun, they go through the ether by means of their miraculous power; the wise are led out of this world, when they have conquered Mara and his train.
If a man has transgressed one law, and speaks lies, and scoffs at another world, there is no evil he will not do. The uncharitable do not go to the world of the gods; fools only do not praise liberality; a wise man rejoices in liberality, and through it becomes blessed in the other world.
Better than sovereignty over the earth, better than going to heaven, better than lordship over all worlds, is the reward of the first step in holiness.
He whose conquest is not conquered again, into whose conquest no one in this world enters, by what track can you lead him, the Awakened, the Omniscient, the trackless? He whom no desire with its snares and poisons can lead astray, by what track can you lead him, the Awakened, the Omniscient, the trackless? Even the gods envy those who are awakened and not forgetful, who are given to meditation, who are wise, and who delight in the repose of retirement from the world.
Difficult to obtain is the conception of men, difficult is the life of mortals, difficult is the hearing of the True Law, difficult is the birth of the Awakened the attainment of Buddhahood. Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's mind, that is the teaching of all the Awakened. The Awakened call patience the highest penance, long-suffering the highest Nirvana; for he is not an anchorite pravragita who strikes others, he is not an ascetic sramana who insults others.
Not to blame, not to strike, to live restrained under the law, to be moderate in eating, to sleep and sit alone, and to dwell on the highest thoughts,--this is the teaching of the Awakened. There is no satisfying lusts, even by a shower of gold pieces; he who knows that lusts have a short taste and cause pain, he is wise; Even in heavenly pleasures he finds no satisfaction, the disciple who is fully awakened delights only in the destruction of all desires.
Men, driven by fear, go to many a refuge, to mountains and forests, to groves and sacred trees. But that is not a safe refuge, that is not the best refuge; a man is not delivered from all pains after having gone to that refuge. He who takes refuge with Buddha, the Law, and the Church; he who, with clear understanding, sees the four holy truths: That is the safe refuge, that is the best refuge; having gone to that refuge, a man is delivered from all pain.
A supernatural person a Buddha is not easily found, he is not born everywhere. Wherever such a sage is born, that race prospers. Happy is the arising of the awakened, happy is the teaching of the True Law, happy is peace in the church, happy is the devotion of those who are at peace.
He who pays homage to those who deserve homage, whether the awakened Buddha or their disciples, those who have overcome the host of evils , and crossed the flood of sorrow, he who pays homage to such as have found deliverance and know no fear, his merit can never be measured by anybody. Chapter XV Happiness Let us live happily then, not hating those who hate us! Let us live happily then, free from ailments among the ailing!
Let us live happily then, free from greed among the greedy! Let us live happily then, though we call nothing our own! We shall be like the bright gods, feeding on happiness! Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is unhappy. He who has given up both victory and defeat, he, the contented, is happy. There is no fire like passion; there is no losing throw like hatred; there is no pain like this body; there is no happiness higher than rest.
Hunger is the worst of diseases, the body the greatest of pains; if one knows this truly, that is Nirvana, the highest happiness.
Health is the greatest of gifts, contentedness the best riches; trust is the best of relationships, Nirvana the highest happiness. He who has tasted the sweetness of solitude and tranquillity, is free from fear and free from sin, while he tastes the sweetness of drinking in the law. The sight of the elect Arya is good, to live with them is always happiness; if a man does not see fools, he will be truly happy. He who walks in the company of fools suffers a long way; company with fools, as with an enemy, is always painful; company with the wise is pleasure, like meeting with kinsfolk.
Therefore, one ought to follow the wise, the intelligent, the learned, the much enduring, the dutiful, the elect; one ought to follow a good and wise man, as the moon follows the path of the stars. Chapter XVI Pleasure He who gives himself to vanity, and does not give himself to meditation, forgetting the real aim of life and grasping at pleasure, will in time envy him who has exerted himself in meditation. Let no man ever look for what is pleasant, or what is unpleasant.
Not to see what is pleasant is pain, and it is pain to see what is unpleasant.
Let, therefore, no man love anything; loss of the beloved is evil. Those who love nothing and hate nothing, have no fetters. From pleasure comes grief, from pleasure comes fear; he who is free from pleasure knows neither grief nor fear.
From affection comes grief, from affection comes fear; he who is free from affection knows neither grief nor fear. From lust comes grief, from lust comes fear; he who is free from lust knows neither grief nor fear.
From love comes grief, from love comes fear; he who is free from love knows neither grief nor fear. From greed comes grief, from greed comes fear; he who is free from greed knows neither grief nor fear.
He who possesses virtue and intelligence, who is just, speaks the truth, and does what is his own business, him the world will hold dear. He in whom a desire for the Ineffable Nirvana has sprung up, who is satisfied in his mind, and whose thoughts are not bewildered by love, he is called urdhvamsrotas carried upwards by the stream. Kinsmen, friends, and lovers salute a man who has been long away, and returns safe from afar.
In like manner his good works receive him who has done good, and has gone from this world to the other;--as kinsmen receive a friend on his return.
Let a man leave anger, let him forsake pride, let him overcome all bondage! No sufferings befall the man who is not attached to name and form, and who calls nothing his own. He who holds back rising anger like a rolling chariot, him I call a real driver; other people are but holding the reins. Let a man overcome anger by love, let him overcome evil by good; let him overcome the greedy by liberality, the liar by truth! Speak the truth, do not yield to anger; give, if thou art asked for little; by these three steps thou wilt go near the gods.
The sages who injure nobody, and who always control their body, they will go to the unchangeable place Nirvana , where, if they have gone, they will suffer no more.
Those who are ever watchful, who study day and night, and who strive after Nirvana, their passions will come to an end. This is an old saying, O Atula, this is not only of to-day: There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a man who is always blamed, or a man who is always praised.
But he whom those who discriminate praise continually day after day, as without blemish, wise, rich in knowledge and virtue, who would dare to blame him, like a coin made of gold from the Gambu river?
Even the gods praise him, he is praised even by Brahman. Beware of bodily anger, and control thy body! Leave the sins of the body, and with thy body practise virtue! Beware of the anger of the tongue, and control thy tongue! Leave the sins of the tongue, and practise virtue with thy tongue!
Beware of the anger of the mind, and control thy mind! Leave the sins of the mind, and practise virtue with thy mind! The wise who control their body, who control their tongue, the wise who control their mind, are indeed well controlled.
Thou art now like a sear leaf, the messengers of death Yama have come near to thee; thou standest at the door of thy departure, and thou hast no provision for thy journey. Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise! When thy impurities are blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt enter into the heavenly world of the elect Ariya. Thy life has come to an end, thou art come near to death Yama , there is no resting-place for thee on the road, and thou hast no provision for thy journey.
When thy impurities are blown away, and thou art free from guilt, thou wilt not enter again into birth and decay. Let a wise man blow off the impurities of his self, as a smith blows off the impurities of silver one by one, little by little, and from time to time. As the impurity which springs from the iron, when it springs from it, destroys it; thus do a transgressor's own works lead him to the evil path.
The taint of prayers is non-repetition; the taint of houses, non- repair; the taint of the body is sloth; the taint of a watchman, thoughtlessness. Bad conduct is the taint of woman, greediness the taint of a benefactor; tainted are all evil ways in this world and in the next. But there is a taint worse than all taints,--ignorance is the greatest taint. O mendicants! Life is easy to live for a man who is without shame, a crow hero, a mischief-maker, an insulting, bold, and wretched fellow.
But life is hard to live for a modest man, who always looks for what is pure, who is disinterested, quiet, spotless, and intelligent. He who destroys life, who speaks untruth, who in this world takes what is not given him, who goes to another man's wife; And the man who gives himself to drinking intoxicating liquors, he, even in this world, digs up his own root.
O man, know this, that the unrestrained are in a bad state; take care that greediness and vice do not bring thee to grief for a long time! The world gives according to their faith or according to their pleasure: He in whom that feeling is destroyed, and taken out with the very root, finds rest by day and by night.
There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed. The fault of others is easily perceived, but that of oneself is difficult to perceive; a man winnows his neighbour's faults like chaff, but his own fault he hides, as a cheat hides the bad die from the gambler. If a man looks after the faults of others, and is always inclined to be offended, his own passions will grow, and he is far from the destruction of passions.
There is no path through the air, a man is not a Samana by outward acts. The world delights in vanity, the Tathagatas the Buddhas are free from vanity. No creatures are eternal; but the awakened Buddha are never shaken. A man is not just if he carries a matter by violence; no, he who distinguishes both right and wrong, who is learned and leads others, not by violence, but by law and equity, and who is guarded by the law and intelligent, he is called just.
A man is not learned because he talks much; he who is patient, free from hatred and fear, he is called learned. A man is not a supporter of the law because he talks much; even if a man has learnt little, but sees the law bodily, he is a supporter of the law, a man who never neglects the law. He in whom there is truth, virtue, love, restraint, moderation, he who is free from impurity and is wise, he is called an elder.
An envious greedy, dishonest man does not become respectable by means of much talking only, or by the beauty of his complexion. He in whom all this is destroyed, and taken out with the very root, he, when freed from hatred and wise, is called respectable. Not by tonsure does an undisciplined man who speaks falsehood become a Samana; can a man be a Samana who is still held captive by desire and greediness?
He who always quiets the evil, whether small or large, he is called a Samana a quiet man , because he has quieted all evil. A man is not a mendicant Bhikshu simply because he asks others for alms; he who adopts the whole law is a Bhikshu, not he who only begs. He who is above good and evil, who is chaste, who with knowledge passes through the world, he indeed is called a Bhikshu. A man is not a Muni because he observes silence mona, i. A man is not an elect Ariya because he injures living creatures; because he has pity on all living creatures, therefore is a man called Ariya.
Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much learning, not by entering into a trance, not by sleeping alone, do I earn the happiness of release which no worldling can know. Bhikshu, be not confident as long as thou hast not attained the extinction of desires. Chapter XX The Way The best of ways is the eightfold; the best of truths the four words; the best of virtues passionlessness; the best of men he who has eyes to see.
This is the way, there is no other that leads to the purifying of intelligence. Go on this way! Everything else is the deceit of Mara the tempter. If you go on this way, you will make an end of pain! The way was preached by me, when I had understood the removal of the thorns in the flesh.
You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas Buddhas are only preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage of Mara. He who does not rouse himself when it is time to rise, who, though young and strong, is full of sloth, whose will and thought are weak, that lazy and idle man will never find the way to knowledge.
Watching his speech, well restrained in mind, let a man never commit any wrong with his body! Let a man but keep these three roads of action clear, and he will achieve the way which is taught by the wise.
Through zeal knowledge is gotten, through lack of zeal knowledge is lost; let a man who knows this double path of gain and loss thus place himself that knowledge may grow. Cut down the whole forest of lust , not a tree only!
Danger comes out of the forest of lust. When you have cut down both the forest of lust and its undergrowth, then, Bhikshus, you will be rid of the forest and free! So long as the love of man towards women, even the smallest, is not destroyed, so long is his mind in bondage, as the calf that drinks milk is to its mother.
Cut out the love of self, like an autumn lotus, with thy hand! Cherish the road of peace.
Nirvana has been shown by Sugata Buddha. Death comes and carries off that man, praised for his children and flocks, his mind distracted, as a flood carries off a sleeping village.
Sons are no help, nor a father, nor relations; there is no help from kinsfolk for one whom death has seized. A wise and good man who knows the meaning of this, should quickly clear the way that leads to Nirvana. Chapter XXI Miscellaneous If by leaving a small pleasure one sees a great pleasure, let a wise man leave the small pleasure, and look to the great. He who, by causing pain to others, wishes to obtain pleasure for himself, he, entangled in the bonds of hatred, will never be free from hatred.
What ought to be done is neglected, what ought not to be done is done; the desires of unruly, thoughtless people are always increasing. But they whose whole watchfulness is always directed to their body, who do not follow what ought not to be done, and who steadfastly do what ought to be done, the desires of such watchful and wise people will come to an end. A true Brahmana goes scatheless, though he have killed father and mother, and two valiant kings, though he has destroyed a kingdom with all its subjects.
A true Brahmana goes scatheless, though he have killed father and mother, and two holy kings, and an eminent man besides.
The disciples of Gotama Buddha are always well awake, and their thoughts day and night are always set on Buddha. The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day and night are always set on the law.
The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day and night are always set on the church. The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their thoughts day and night are always set on their body. The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and night always delights in compassion. The disciples of Gotama are always well awake, and their mind day and night always delights in meditation.
It is hard to leave the world to become a friar , it is hard to enjoy the world; hard is the monastery, painful are the houses; painful it is to dwell with equals to share everything in common and the itinerant mendicant is beset with pain. Therefore let no man be an itinerant mendicant and he will not be beset with pain. Whatever place a faithful, virtuous, celebrated, and wealthy man chooses, there he is respected. Good people shine from afar, like the snowy mountains; bad people are not seen, like arrows shot by night.
He alone who, without ceasing, practises the duty of sitting alone and sleeping alone, he, subduing himself, will rejoice in the destruction of all desires alone, as if living in a forest. He who says what is not, goes to hell; he also who, having done a thing, says I have not done it. After death both are equal, they are men with evil deeds in the next world.
Many men whose shoulders are covered with the yellow gown are ill-conditioned and unrestrained; such evil-doers by their evil deeds go to hell. Better it would be to swallow a heated iron ball, like flaring fire, than that a bad unrestrained fellow should live on the charity of the land. Four things does a wreckless man gain who covets his neighbour's wife,--a bad reputation, an uncomfortable bed, thirdly, punishment, and lastly, hell.
I argue that translations of the Dhammapada are conditioned not only by the viewpoints of the translators but also by the existence of a tradition of translating the Dhammapada. Both factors I conclude have contributed to the importance placed on the Dhammapada as a representative Buddhist text. The importance of this, I will suggest, is that it means his translation represents 1.
These translations are important to us today, I will suggest, as they relate to the origins of the modern dichotomy between popular and academic understandings of Buddhist texts.
The paper then dis- cusses how the Dhammapada became identified as the representative text of Buddhism and the ways in which later translations of it have interpreted the meaning of its text. Dhammapada or Dhammapadas? The first question that needs to be addressed is what is the Dhammapada and how does it relate to Buddhist literature.
The popularity of Dhammapada-like texts can also be seen in other Buddhist textual traditions. There are also texts that indicate the importance of the Dhammapada as seen in the Buddhist tradition. An important example of this can be found in a work published in by Bhikkhu Kuala Lumpur Dhammajoti.
In this work the author made a study of Chinese Dhammapada traditions and a translation of 3. For a discussion of the relationship of the Dhammapada to other Indian literatures, see K. The Pali Text Society,  , xix. International Academy of International Culture. Norman, xx—xxi. Also see W. Woodville Rockhill, Udanavarga: He also translated the introduction to the Fa Jyu Jing, which explains how it was made by an Indian monk called Ju Jiang Yen who had a manuscript of a version of the Dhammapada with him when he arrived from India in Wu Chang in CE.
He then made a translation of it into Chinese, which was collated by a Chinese monk Jy Chien. The original intro- duction to the translation indicated what the Indian monk said of the impor- tance of the following text: In India, those beginners who do not study [first] the Dharmapada are said to have skipped the proper order.
This [text] is a great inspiration for the beginners, [as much as] a recondite treasure for those who want to get deep into the dharma. It serves to enlighten, clear up doubts and induce men to be independent. With only little effort, what one learns from it embraces a vast amount. Truly, [this Dhammapada], may be said to be a wonderful and important [text]. The importance of the Dhammapada in pre-modern times in Southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Burma is also evident from the way that it was one of the texts that was expected to be learned by heart by all Buddhist novices.
As a result of this laudable custom, there is in Ceylon no fully ordained bhikkhu who cannot recite the Dhammapada by heart from beginning to end. Moreover, its stanzas are very often quoted by Buddhist preachers as texts on which their sermons are based. The laypeople would only have been able to understand the commentaries on it in Sinhalese or Burmese, etc.
The tradition of making commentaries on the Dhammapada in Sri Lanka are said to go back to when Buddhism was first introduced to the island.
Dhammajoti, Sumagala Thera, The Dhammapada London: This is also mentioned by H. Kaviratna, Dhammapada: Wisdom of the Buddha Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, , xv. Pali Text Society, [original edition ]. During this period, British people began to settle in Sri Lanka and among these were Methodist Missionaries. The first major work he published was Eastern Monachism, which appeared in In the preface to this he said: In the month of September, , I landed in the beautiful island of Ceylon as a Wesleyan Missionary, and one of the first duties to which I addressed myself was, to acquire a knowledge of the language of the people among whom I was appointed a minister.
After reading the New Testament in Singhalese, I began the study of the native books, that I might ascertain, from authentic sources, the character of the religion I was attempting to displace. Several of the chapters have been translated by Mr.
Gogerly, and appear in the Friend, vol. The Singhalese paraphrase of the Paths, is regarded by the people as one of their most excellent works, as it treats upon moral subjects, delivered for the most part in aphorisms, the mode of instruction that is the most popular among all nations that have few books at their command, and have to trust in a great degree to memory for their stores of knowledge.
A collection might be made from the precepts of this work, that in the purity of its ethics could scarcely be equalled from any other heathen author. Stories of the Saddharma Ratnavaliya Albany: State University of New York Press, , ix—xxx.
See Kaviratna, — These include: Spence Hardy, Eastern Monachism: Partridge and Oakey Paternoster Row, , v. Spence Hardy, Although it was not the first complete published translation, it certainly must be regarded as the first substantial translation of the Dhammapada. It is important to note that Gogerly, like his colleague Spence Hardy, was studying Buddhism in order to assist in his efforts to convert Buddhists to Christianity. In her recent study of Buddhism and Christianity in nineteenth-century Sri Lanka, Harris pointed out that the nub of his interest was to find ways to prove to Buddhists that they were not as wise as they thought.
Dhammapada Translations from to The next major steps in translation of the Dhammapada into Western lan- guages happened between and Bishop ed. Rout- ledge, , Weber, Das Dhammapadam: Rogers, R.
Rogers, liii. Rogers, v. Rogers, viii. Rogers, 1— Charles Scribner and Company, , Four lectures delivered in the Royal Institute in London: In his often illuminating notes on his translations, he refers only once to Gogerly. Gogerly again is mentioned in relation to the title, but only in passing in a section somewhat similar to that from about the title of the work.
Spence, Leroux, Samuel Beal, Texts from the Buddhist canon, commonly known as Dhammapada, with accompanying narratives. Translated from the Chinese London: The Clarendon Press, There are several interesting differences in footnotes, in regard to verses — Two possible explanations for this might be proposed.
First, he may not have compared his translations to it because he saw it as not worth mentioning as it was not a scholarly translation as he saw Gogerly as relying too heavily on contemporary Sri Lankan tradition. Second, it is possible that he had never actually seen it. The exploration of the Ceylonese literature has since been taken up again by the Rev.
Gogerly died , whose essays are unfortunately scattered about in Singha- lese periodicals and little known in Europe; and by the Rev. Spence Hardy, for twenty years Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon. Instead I will take here some key verses and then compare them with two other translations. Norman and was first published in Scribner, Armstrong, And Co. Mind precedes action. The motive is chief: If any one speak or act from a corrupt mind, suffering will follow the action, as the wheel follows the lifted foot of the ox.
If any one speak or act from a pure mind, enjoyment will follow the action, as the shadow attends the substance. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.
Mental phenomena are preceded by mind, have mind as their leader, are made by mind. If one acts or speaks with an evil mind, from that sorrow follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox. Mental phenomena are preceded by mind, have mind as their leader, are made of mind. If one acts or speaks with a pure mind, from that happiness follows him, like a shadow not going away. This verse is frequently quoted to show that no action is criminal unless it proceeds from an evil motive, and it is illustrated by the case of a blind priest, who, while walking, unconsciously trod on a number of insects and killed them.
His case was reported to Buddha, who decided that as the evil was not intended the priest was guiltless. Bishop, Norman, 1. Gogerly translated, Painful are continued transmigrations: Thy rafters are all broken. Thy roof timbers scattered abroad. Without ceasing shall I run through a course of many births, Looking for the maker of this tabernacle, — and painful is birth again and again.
But now, maker of the tabernacle, thou hast been seen; thou shalt not make up this tabernacle again. All thy rafters are broken, thy ridge-pole is sundered; the mind, being sundered; has attained to the extinction of all desires. Gogerly translated: Through various transmigrations I must travel, if I do not discover the builder whom I seek. Spence Hardy: Through transmigrations of numerous births have I run, not discovering, though seeking the house-builder.
I have run through the journeying-on of numerous births, without respite, seeking the house-maker; birth again and again is painful. O house-maker, you are seen. You will not make the house again.
All these rafters are broken, the house-ridge is destroyed. The mind, set on the destruction of material things , has attained the termination of cravings. Bishop, — Norman, The instructions of the Buddha are: Abstain from all vice.
Perform virtuous actions. Purify the mind. In some cases, he sometimes translates words in ways that are perhaps simply wrong. Other instances of wrong identification of words are also present, but I suggest not really very many. That will produce happiness both in this world, and that which is to come. Walk in the path of righteousness, not in those of unrighteousness. The precept is to go in order from door to door and receive and eat such things as are given.
Rouse thyself! Follow the law of virtue! The virtuous rests in bliss in this world and in the next. Follow the law of virtue; do not follow that of sin. Buddhist Missionary Society,  , — What makes Gogerly particularly interesting is then the ways in which his translation varies from modern translations.
The most important of these is the way his understanding shows a fairly complete conflation of the text and the commentary, whereas nowadays scholars and monks try to distinguish the two. I would argue that since the development of Modern Buddhism, this distinction has become vital. Verses 13 and 14 can be considered as examples of the way that Gogerly understands the text in terms of the story, which explains the verses.
As the rain completely penetrates the ill-thatched roof, so will lust completely subdue the unmeditative mind.