COMPLETE SET OF 13 VOLUMES OF TAREEKH IBN E KHALDUN WITH ITS AMAZING WORLD RENOWNED MUQADDIMAH THAT LAID. 2 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 12) · 3 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 3) 8 Tareekh Ibne Khalidoon-(Part 2) · 9 Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in to Urdu by Hakeem Ahmd Hussain Elahabadi. Complete .
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Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Urdu 13 Volumes Pdf Free Download Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in. Jan 7, Tareekh Ibn Khaldun, tarikh ibn khaldun in urdu, tareekh ibn Rasoolullah Ki Nasihatein Muhammad, Book Lists, Islamic, Pdf, Reading Lists. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon-5 (This file is too large to preview). Tareekh Ibne KhaldoonPreview ebook · Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon 07Preview.
Methodology and objective The methodologies of writing this paper are historical study and case study, it is definitely a qualitative study.
The paper will illustrate the theoretical application on explaining the case of Dervish Movement, founded by Muhammad Abdullah Hassan A. H , a great historian in pre-modern Islamic history, was born in Tunisia. It is believed that he was the descendent of Wail bin Hajar, one of the Yemani companion Sahabat in Arabic language during the period of Prophet Muhammad, Wail bin Hajar came from Hadhramaut, the southern part of Yeman today, according to his autobiography, his ancestor moved from Arabian Peninsula to North Africa and Andalusia, but he doubted with the reality of his genealogy.
The Berbers still used their own languages—Tifinagh. He was born in an unstable Tunisia in North Africa, he was grown up under well-educated and famous family. His ancestor moved to North Africa due to the fall of Muslim regime in Spain by the conquest of Christian troop. Unluckily his father Muhammad Al-Khaldun and family died from a great plague Black Death10 , the public health in both Europe and Africa were backward at that time, but he did not give up himself, he was industrious and learned person, he learnt Al-Quran, Al-Hadith, history, literature, philology, theology, Maliki jurisprudence11 and philosophy from some famous teachers or scholars in both North Africa and Andalusia Spain nowadays.
His studious character determined the destiny of becoming a great historian in the coming future. At that time, there were three main important states in North Africa, they were Hafsid dynasty A. Marinid dynasty hoped to expand the territories in early years of Ibn Khaldun, it expended near to the frontiers of Tunisia, Zayyanid was captured a lot of territories and only left with some small territories in the interior13 10 For the origin and the end of plague, it is a controversial issue, the scientists still argued with it, because it was difficult to demystify the reality due to the lack of evidence.
It suggested the prioritization to the Al-Quran, Al-Hadith, behaviors and consensus of Madinah people, public interest Maslahah , custom Urf. Frequent power struggle inside the court caused political instabilities, people were the direct victims, and sometimes the nobles struggled for the throne by declaration of wars, and interrupted the daily life of the people To guarantee the prolong of their regimes, and the acceleration of the aggressive expansion policy, both the Hafsid and Marinid dynasties tried to search more talents from their countries and hoped to obtain wise suggestion from these scholars.
They would provide a better offer to the intellectuals, but required these intellectuals showed the loyalty to them, including some unlawful actions. Ibn Khaldun had aided Ibn Tafrakin, whom was the traitor in Hafsid dynasty, and appointed Ibn Khaldun a higher rank of the position, to forge a false document.
As Ibn Tafrakin was overthrown by Abu Zaid the grandson of Sultan Yahya , the Emir of Constantine in Algeria nowadays , he was afraid of facing with the criminal accountability of his document forgery, so he moved to Fez for the personal safety Omar Ibn Abdullah allowed his resignation, but prohibited him to return back to Tunisia or Tlemcen, and he moved to Granada, a small emirate located in southern Andalusia Spain nowadays Because of his smoothly career in the court, Ibn Khatib also felt jealous to him and talked a lot of unfavorable speeches to Sultan Muhammad ibn Yusuf, and he then left to Bougie Belaja in Algeria nowadays and became prime minister Hajib , the emir in Bougie was Abu Abdullah Muhammad, Ibn Khaldun had been sent to prison for providing an aid during he was in Fez.
However, Abu Abdullah soon killed by his cousin Abul Abbas, he left to Biskra for personal safety without any choice, and he also suffered from political crisis at that time, even his friend Ibn Khatib, a great poet also killed in power struggle which was out of his expectation, he then came to southern part of Constantine, and was welcomed by Banu Arif, he started writing his historical book in Qalat Ibn Salama Castle, which is in Tujin nowadays.
He spent 4 year in this castle, he had enjoyed politic-free leisure. He returned to Cairo, Egypt. He had become Mufti Chief Judge because he was familiar with Maliki Fiqh, and taught in Masjid Al-Azhar, his learned and plentiful writing helped him to gain reputation in Cairo.
In late 14th century, a famous leader called Timur, the descendent of Mongol, the famous commander from Mongolia, and he was reported to be the same tribal people with Chingghis Khan, whom was the founder of Mongol Empire in 13th century. Timur conquest Iran, Iraq, Khurasan, Syria, Moscow and New Delhi in India, terrible memories deeply rooted to the ancestors of the people in Damascus and they then asked for a help from Sultan An-Nasir Faraj, a young Sultan in Mamluk dynasty, Sultan went with some faqihs and Sufis in order to get advise from them and to get blessing from the God, because Timur was a stronger invader and Sultan An-Nasir Faraj did not know whether he would come back to Cairo peacefully or not.
Although he was captured, Timur admired of his talents and asked him to tell him and write down the history in North Africa. He was died in Cairo and aged at 87, he was buried in Sufi cemetery in Cairo. At least after the s, the Chinese scholars started the research work on his book Cyclical theory So what is the Cyclical theory?
His ancestor moved to North Africa to escape the capture of Christian troop. In his mid years, he had experienced a lot of power struggles in different court, and he was tired to deal with these endless disputes. Cyclical Theory occurred by his permanent study on history and also his unusual experience in different courts. Before his birth, Islamic historiography started from the rise of Islam, people in Arabian Peninsula did not have mature understanding on the historical concept, and even in North Africa, other than the archaeological sources, people usually relied on the outer sources to understand the history, such as Ancient Egypt, Roman Empire, Byzantine.
The coming of Islam brought a chance to the people in Africa on the reflection towards historical significance by the penetration of Arabic language and they no longer relied on the oral transmission It is noticed that the historiographical background in Africa written by J.
Fage in his article were also applicable to the situation in Somalia nonetheless they performed than in North Africa due to the legacy of some fitful records on pre-Islamic history in Somalia.
With the aid of previous historians such as Urwa Al-Zubair, Al-Tabari, Al-Kalbi, historical concepts developed better with their fruitful writing, paved to the rise of this famous historian—Ibn Khaldun.
Moreover, Ibn Khaldun followed with Ashari creed, it is an important reason, 20 J. Ashari generated from Mutazilah, which aimed at neutralizing the suggestion by Mutazilah and Salafism. After 8th century, although the Islamic theology was well-developed, diversified suggestions occurred at that time according to the understanding of those theological scholars, as we know that, Prophet Muhammad did not decide the candidature of his successor, and the following Muslims strived for the theological succession from the Islamic teaching by Prophet Muhammad in daily life, they also started the debate on the concept of Islamic faith.
Complicated religious and political development generated too much religious massacres in 8th and 9th centuries. Ashari was the first sect to quote the Greek philosophy into Islam, which inspired to the philosophical thought of Ibn Khaldun indirectly.
In sum up, his cyclical theory suggested the rise and the fall of state or dynasty, or even the civilization, could be experienced into five stages, and it would be no more than five stages He assumed each cycle would be no more than years, 40 years per generation, and he expected one cycle would be not more than three generations.
Although Ibn Khaldun focused on the role of leadership in dynastic establishment, he did not forget the role of the subjects in enhancing the rise and the fall of dynasty. Ibn Khaldun recognized the role of human in enhancing the progression of history. Human is a creator of the civilization, and civilization is the spiritual nutrition of the human. In traditional Islamic political concept, the ruler, or the Caliph, was the agent of the God, he got the permission from the God and he had duty to protect his subjects, particularly the religion, the human right of Muslims, the property of his subjects and the Islamic intellectual culture25 could be freed from any external invasion.
The ruler or Caliph, also had the duty to protect to non-Muslim inside his country, because they had submitted the taxation to the country, and they had given some socio-economic 24 M. This leader also needed to guarantee the legislative justice according to the constitution.
If some foreign tribes or country wanted to invade, he should participate to the war in order to protect the subjects The key to guarantee the stability of the country or the state, was to gain the support from the people Ibn Khaldun thought that the method to prolong the regime were to strengthen the religion and social solidarity, in order to strengthen the social cohesion.
In his concept, solidarity is a material method, and religion is a spiritual method, the ruler needed to understand the importance of balancing the religion and social solidarity. This point is similar to the political theory in ancient China, they thought that the combination of Confucianism and the concern to the common people should be combined and used on political administration, especially the king.
The first was the stage of establishment, in this stage, he suggested the founder would establish his state or regime by connecting his family, or the dominant religion or could be regarded as an ideology They were performed as a nomadic character, they did not forget the living style and difficulties in desert, and thus they were stronger, braver and rapacious Capability of the leader during the stage of establishment, in eyes of Ibn Khaldun, needed to balance the importance of religious and political propaganda too The second was the stage of development, in this stage the ruler would try to maximize the ruling power and its consolidation by enhancing the administrative methods, such as the elimination of his potential threats inside and outside the court.
On the other hands, the ruler might try his best to gain support from the officials and peasants, these might be achieved by nomination of some important positions in the court, or to introduce some favorable and friendly socio-economic policies, in order to perform a positive image in front of his subject—the citizen in his empire. In other words, Ibn Khaldun thought that the rise or the fall of the dynasties depended on whether the rulers would like to share some powers with his subjects or not.
Becoming a leader, the regime did not only represent to his family and tribal supporters, but also the religion, here he stood for the Islamic law. Ibn Khaldun also suggested the potential occurrence of the traitors, whom might provide a bad advice to the ruler in order to gain political interest.
Actually he implied the leaders during the second and third stage in his Cyclical Theory needed to pay attention on the regional administration as it implied more of population would be under the management of these leaders, once the leaders failed to it, the dynasty would face with the risk of collapse.
He added the length of the dynasty and the coverage of population existed positive proportional relation with the duration of the dynastic collapse The rulers were able to rule their countries with effective systems and the stable trustworthy between the rulers, tribes and the foreign countries, and the state was able to collect wealth from taxation, which could also be able to fulfill with the personal desire of the king or ruler, it was exactly the palace life, these king or ruler, might not have experience on the stage of establishment, and came to the throne from their father, grandfather or ancestors, then tried to maximize the personal desire on gaining wealth from his subject.
Increasing numbers of the infrastructure projects would be appeared in order to beautify the city, the wedding party by the rulers became more and more luxurious These kind of the ruler thought their subjects should have obligation to follow with his order, because the subject had enjoy some privileges from the previous ruler.
Additionally, some traitors might be appeared since the previous ruler, or appeared in this stage, the negative political and socio-economic consequence might be occurred in this stage and the subjects of this kingdom would start to decide whether they would like to overthrow this regime or not. He further classified the non-religious sciences into intellectual sciences such as logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, etc.
He also suggested that possibly more divisions will appear in the future with different societies. Nonetheless, he didn't think that laws were chosen by just one leader or a small group of individual but mostly by the majority of the individuals of a society.
To Ibn Khaldun, the state was a necessity of human society to restrain injustice within the society, but the state means is force, thus itself an injustice. All societies must have a state governing them in order to establish a society.
He attempted to standardize the history of societies by identifying ubiquitous phenomena present in all societies. To him, civilization was a phenomena that will be present as long as humans exist. He characterized the fulfillment of basic needs as the beginning of civilization. At the beginning, people will look for different ways of increasing productivity of basic needs and expansion will occur.
Later the society starts becoming more sedentary and focuses more on crafting, arts and the more refined characteristics. By the end of a society, it will weaken, allowing another small group of individuals to come into control. The conquering group is described as an unsatisfied group within the society itself or a group of desert bandits that constantly attack other weaker or weakened societies. In the Muqaddimah, his most important work, he thoughtfully and scrupulously discusses an introduction of philosophy to history in a general manner, based on observable patterns within a theoretical framework of known historical events of his time.
He described the beginnings, development, cultural trends and the fall of all societies, leading to the rise of a new society which would then follow the same trends in a continuous cycle. Ibn Khaldun did not create a perfect model for a society during his life, but he did think there was a need for a new model to manage society to ensure its continuous economic growth.
Also, he recommended the best political approaches to develop a society according to his knowledge of history. He heavily emphasized that a good society would be one in which a tradition of education is deeply rooted in its culture. The concept of asabiya has been translated as "social cohesion," "group solidarity," or "tribalism. Ibn Khaldun believed that too much bureaucracy, such as taxes and legislations, would lead to the decline of a society, since it would constrain the development of more specialized labor increase in scholars and development of different services.
He believed that bureaucrats cannot understand the world of commerce and do not possess the same motivation as a businessman. In his work the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun emphasizes human beings' faculty to think fikr as what determines human behavior and ubiquitous patterns. This faculty is also what inspires human beings to form into a social structure to co-operate in division of labor and organization.
Another important concept he emphasizes in his work is the mastery of crafts, habits and skills. These takes place after a society is established and according to Ibn Khaldun the level of achievement of a society can be determined by just analyzing these three concepts.
A society in its earliest stages is nomadic and primarily concerned with survival, while a society at a later stage is sedentary, with greater achievement in crafts.
A society with a sedentary culture and stable politics would be expected to have greater achievements in crafts and technology. Ibn Khaldun also emphasized in his epistemology theory the important aspect that educational tradition plays to ensure the new generations of a civilization continuously improve in the sciences and develop culture. Ibn Khaldun argued that without the strong establishment of an educational tradition, it would be very difficult for the new generations to maintain the achievements of the earlier generations, let alone improve them.
Another way to distinguish the achievement of a society would be the language factor of a society, since for him the most important element of a society would not be land, but the language spoken by them.
He was surprised that many non-Arabs were really successful in the Arabic society, had good jobs and were well received by the community. Advancements in literary works such as poems and prose where another way to distinguish the achievement of a civilization, but Ibn Khaldun believed that whenever the literary facet of a society reaches its highest levels it ceases to indicate societal achievements anymore, but is an embellishment of life.
For logical sciences he established knowledge at its highest level as an increase of scholars and the quality of knowledge. For him the highest level of literary productions would be the manifestation of prose, poems and the artistic enrichment of a society.
From other sources we know of several other works, primarily composed during the time he spent in North Africa and Al-Andalus. Ibn Khaldun's historical method had very few precedents or followers in his time. While Ibn Khaldun is known to have been a successful lecturer on jurisprudence within religious sciences, only very few of his students were aware of, and influenced by, his Muqaddimah.
These criticisms included accusations of inadequate historical knowledge, an inaccurate title, disorganization, and a style resembling that of the prolific Arab literature writer, Al-Jahiz. Al-Asqalani also noted that Ibn Khaldun was not well-liked in Egypt because he opposed many respected traditions, including the traditional judicial dress, and suggested that this may have contributed to the reception of Ibn Khaldun's historical works.
Ibn Khaldun's work found some recognition with Ottoman intellectuals in the 17th century. However, some scholars believe that Ibn Khaldun's work may have first been introduced to Europe via Ibn Arabshah's biography of Tamerlane, translated to Latin, which covers a meeting between Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane. Since then, the work of Ibn Khaldun has been extensively studied in the Western world with special interest. Early European works on Ibn Khaldun suffered heavily from colonial influences and orientalism, as many sociologists considered North Africa to be unworthy of studying in the19th century.
Reynold A. Nicholson praised Ibn Khaldun as a uniquely brilliant Muslim sociologist, but discounted Khaldun's influence. Ibn Khaldun's contributions to economics were ignored by historians like Joseph Schumpeter , who wrote that "we may safely leap over years to the epoch of St Thomas Aquinas " as late as Modern historians have also been complimentary in their analysis of Ibn Khaldun's works, and acknowledgement of his contemporaries or standing compared to European scholars is increasingly common.
Influential British historian and international affairs specialist Arnold J. Toynbee has called Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddimah "the greatest work of its kind. More moderate views on the scope of Ibn Khaldun's contributions have emerged. Arthur Laffer , for whom the Laffer curve is named, acknowledged that Ibn Khaldun's ideas, as well as others, precede his own work on that curve. As a historian and sociologist, Ibn Khaldun was recognized by the British philosopher Robert Flint , who wrote: Plato , Aristotle , and Augustine were not his peers, and all others were unworthy of being even mentioned along with him".
Ibn Khaldun's work on evolution of societies also influenced Egon Orowan , who termed the concept of socionomy. Public recognition of Ibn Khaldun has increased in recent years. The Award was named after Ibn Khaldun for him being universally acknowledged as the Father of Sociology and also for the convergence of his ideas with the organization's objectives and programs. In , the Atlas Economic Research Foundation launched an annual essay contest  for students named in Ibn Khaldun's honor.
The theme of the contest is "how individuals, think tanks, universities and entrepreneurs can influence government policies to allow the free market to flourish and improve the lives of its citizens based on Islamic teachings and traditions.
Ibn Khaldun. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tunis , Hafsid Sultanate of Ifriqiya. Cairo , Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: Boulakia "The founding father of Eastern Sociology". The Western world recognizes Khaldun as the father of sociology but hesitates in recognizing him as a great economist who laid its very foundations. He was the first to systematically analyze the functioning of an economy, the importance of technology, specialization and foreign trade in economic surplus and the role of government and its stabilization policies to increase output and employment.
Moreover, he dealt with the problem of optimum taxation, minimum government services, incentives, institutional framework, law and order, expectations, production, and the theory of value". Cosma, Sorinel Retrieved 25 February In Oliver Leama. The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy.
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