The poet Kabīr, a selection from whose songs is here for the first time offered to English readers, is one of the most interesting personalities in the history of. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. By Rabindranath Tagore. The poet Kabir, one of the most intriguing and celebrated personalities in the history of Indian. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg.
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*PDF created by ruthenpress.info 1 . Kabır's songs are of this kind: out-births at once of rapture and .. ”This version of Kabır's songs is chiefly the work of. ruthenpress.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The poet Kabır, a selection from whose songs is here for the first time *PDF created by ruthenpress.info 1 .. ”This version of Kabır's songs is chiefly the work of.
In the effort to tell the truth about that ineffable apprehension, so vast and yet so near, which controls his life, he seizes and twines together--as he might have woven together contrasting threads upon his loom--symbols and ideas drawn from the most violent and conflicting philosophies and faiths.
All are needed, if he is ever to suggest the character of that One whom the Upanishad called "the Sun-coloured Being who is beyond this Darkness": as all the colours of the spectrum are needed if we would demonstrate the simple richness of white light. In thus adapting traditional materials to his own use he follows a method common amongst the mystics; who seldom exhibit any special love for originality of form. They will pour their wine into almost any vessel that comes to hand: generally using by preference--and lifting to new levels of beauty and significance--the religious or philosophic formul current in their own day.
Others use as their material the ordinary surroundings and incidents of Indian life: the temple bells, the ceremony of the lamps, marriage, suttee, pilgrimage, the characters of the seasons; all felt by him in their mystical aspect, as sacraments of the soul's relation with Brahma.
In many of these a particularly beautiful and intimate feeling for Nature is shown. Kabr says: "None but Brahma can evoke its melodies.
Rabndranth Tagore, the trend of whose mystical genius makes him--as all who read these poems will see--a peculiarly sympathetic interpreter of Kabr's vision and thought. It has been based upon the printed Hind text with Bengali translation of Mr. Kshiti Mohan Sen; who has gathered from many sources-- sometimes from books and manuscripts, sometimes from the lips of wandering ascetics and minstrels--a large collection of poems and hymns to which Kabr's name is attached, and carefully sifted the authentic songs from the many spurious works now attributed to him.
These painstaking labours alone have made the present undertaking possible. The reference of the headlines of the poems is to: Sntiniketana; Kabr by Sr Kshitimohan Sen, 4 parts, Brahmacharysrama, Bolpur, I am beside thee.
I am neither in temple nor in mosque: I am neither in Kaaba nor in Kailash: Neither am I in rites and ceremonies, nor in Yoga and renunciation. If thou art a true seeker, thou shalt at once see Me: thou shalt meet Me in a moment of time. Kabr says, "O Sadhu! God is the breath of all breath. Santan jt na pcho nirguniyn It is needless to ask of a saint the caste to which he belongs; For the priest, the warrior.
It is but folly to ask what the caste of a saint may be; The barber has sought God, the washerwoman, and the carpenter-- Even Raidas was a seeker after God. The Rishi Swapacha was a tanner by caste.
Hindus and Moslems alike have achieved that End, where remains no mark of distinction. If your bonds be not broken whilst living, what hope of deliverance in death?
It is but an empty dream, that the soul shall have union with Him because it has passed from the body: If He is found now, He is found then, If not, we do but go to dwell in the City of Death. If you have union now, you shall have it hereafter. Bathe in the truth, know the true Guru, have faith in the true Name! Kabr says: "It is the Spirit of the quest which helps; I am the slave of this Spirit of the quest.
O Friend! Take your seat on the thousand petals of the lotus, and there gaze on the Infinite Beauty.
When I gave up the tying of ribbons, still I tied my garment about me: When I gave up tying my garment, still I covered my body in its folds. So, when I give up passion, I see that anger remains; And when I renounce anger, greed is with me still; And when greed is vanquished, pride and vainglory remain; When the mind is detached and casts Maya away, still it clings to the letter.
Kabr says, "Listen to me, dear Sadhu! The unstruck drum of Eternity is sounded within me; but my deaf ears cannot hear it. So long as man clamours for the I and the Mine, his works are as naught: When all love of the I and the Mine is dead, then the work of the Lord is done. For work has no other aim than the getting of knowledge: When that comes, then work is put away.
The flower blooms for the fruit: when the fruit comes, the flower withers. The musk is in the deer, but it seeks it not within itself: it wanders in quest of grass. VII I. As the seed is in the plant, as the shade is in the tree, as the void is in the sky, as infinite forms are in the void-- So from beyond the Infinite, the Infinite comes; and from the Infinite the finite extends.
The creature is in Brahma, and Brahma is in the creature: they are ever distinct, yet ever united. He Himself is the tree, the seed, and the germ. He Himself is the flower, the fruit, and the shade. He Himself is the sun, the light, and the lighted. He Himself is Brahma, creature, and Maya.
He Himself is the manifold form, the infinite space; He is the breath, the word, and the meaning. He Himself is the limit and the limitless: and beyond both the limited and the limitless is He, the Pure Being. He is the Immanent Mind in Brahma and in the creature. Kabr is blest because he has this supreme vision! VIII I. The touchstone and the jewel-appraiser are within; And within this vessel the Eternal soundeth, and the spring wells up.
Kabr says: "Listen to me, my Friend! My beloved Lord is within. O how can I say He is not like this, and He is like that? If I say that He is within me, the universe is ashamed: If I say that He is without me, it is falsehood. He makes the inner and the outer worlds to be indivisibly one; The conscious and the unconscious, both are His footstools. He is neither manifest nor hidden, He is neither revealed nor unrevealed: There are no words to tell that which He is.
I was sleeping in my own chamber, and Thou didst awaken me; striking me with Thy voice, O Fakir! I was drowning in the deeps of the ocean of this world, and Thou didst save me: upholding me with Thine arm, O Fakir! Only one word and no second--and Thou hast made me tear off all my bonds, O Fakir! Kabr says, "Thou hast united Thy heart to my heart, O Fakir! So high is my Lord's palace, my heart trembles to mount its stairs: yet I must not be shy, if I would enjoy His love.
The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Garboli, introduction to Cinque romanzi brevi e altri racconti, viii. Ginzburg, The Complete Short Stories, Ginzburg, Cinque romanzi brevi e altri racconti, Jeanet and Giuliana Sanguinetti Katz, 10— Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Cinque romanzi brevi e altri racconti.
Introduction by Cesare Garboli. Torino: Einaudi, The Complete Short Stories. Translated by Paul Lewis. New York: Seaver, Jeanet and Giuliana Sanguinetti Katz, — Songs of Kabir.
Translated by Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. Contemptuous of the futile worldly pursuits of contemporary soci- ety, Kabir is revered as a saintly rebel.
He knows something, his admirers think. The boy Kabr, in whom the religious passion was innate, saw in Rmnanda his destined teacher; but knew how slight were the chances that a Hindu guru would accept a Mohammedan as disciple.
He therefore hid upon the steps of the river Ganges, where Rmnanda was accustomed to bathe; with the result that the master, coming down to the water, trod upon his body unexpectedly, and exclaimed in his astonishment, "Ram! Kabr then declared that he had received the mantra of www. In spite of the protests of orthodox Brhmans and Mohammedans, both equally annoyed by this contempt of theological landmarks, he persisted in his claim; thus exhibiting in action that very principle of religious synthesis which Rmnanda had sought to establish in thought.
Rmnanda appears to have accepted him, and though Mohammedan legends speak of the famous Sf Pr, Takk of Jhans, as Kabr's master in later life, the Hindu saint is the only human teacher to whom in his songs he acknowledges indebtedness. The little that we know of Kabr's life contradicts many current ideas concerning the Oriental mystic.
Of the stages of discipline through which he passed, the manner in which his spiritual genius developed, we are completely ignorant.
He seems to have remained for years the disciple of Rmnanda, joining in the theological and philosophical arguments which his master held with all the great Mullahs and Brhmans of his day; and to this source we may perhaps trace his acquaintance with the terms of Hindu and Sf philosophy.
He may or may not have submitted to the traditional education of the Hindu or the Sf contemplative: it is clear, at any rate, that he never adopted the life of the professional ascetic, or retired from the world in order to devote himself to bodily mortifications and the exclusive pursuit of the contemplative life.
Side by side with his interior life of adoration, its artistic expression in music and words--for he was a skilled musician as well as a poet--he lived the sane and diligent life of the Oriental craftsman. All the legends agree on this point: that Kabr was a weaver, a simple and unlettered man, who earned his living at the loom. Like Paul the tentmaker, Boehme the cobbler, Bunyan the tinker, Tersteegen the ribbon-maker, he knew how to combine vision and industry; the work of his hands helped rather than hindered the impassioned meditation of his heart.
Hating mere bodily austerities, he was no ascetic, but a married man, the father of a family--a circumstance which Hindu legends of the monastic type vainly attempt to conceal or explain--and it was from out of the heart of the common life that he sang his rapturous lyrics of divine love.
Here his works corroborate the traditional story of his life. Again and again he extols the life of home, the value and reality of diurnal existence, with its opportunities for love and renunciation; pouring contempt--upon the professional sanctity of the Yogi, who "has a great beard and matted locks, and looks like a goat," and on all who think it necessary to flee a world pervaded by love, joy, and www.
Poems Nos. The "simple union" with Divine Reality which he perpetually extolled, as alike the duty and the joy of every soul, was independent both of ritual and of bodily austerities; the God whom he proclaimed was "neither in Kaaba nor in Kailsh. The Purna and the Koran are mere words: lifting up the curtain, I have seen.
The well-known legend of the beautiful courtesan sent by Brhmans to tempt his virtue, and converted, like the Magdalen, by her sudden encounter with the initiate of a higher love, pre serves the memory of the www. Once at least, after the performance of a supposed miracle of healing, he was brought before the Emperor Sikandar Lodi, and charged with claiming the possession of divine powers.
But Sikandar Lodi, a ruler of considerable culture, was tolerant of the eccentricities of saintly persons belonging to his own faith. Kabr, being of Mohammedan birth, was outside the authority of the Brhmans, and technically classed with the Sfs, to whom great theological latitude was allowed.
Therefore, though he was banished in the interests of peace from Benares, his life was spared. This seems to have happened in , when he was nearly sixty years of age; it is the last event in his career of which we have definite knowledge. Thenceforth he appears to have moved about amongst various cities of northern India, the centre of a group of disciples; continuing in exile that life of apostle and poet of love to which, as he declares in one of his songs, he was destined "from the beginning of time.
A beautiful legend tells us that after his death his Mohammedan and Hindu disciples disputed the possession of his body; which the Mohammedans wished to bury, the Hindus to burn. As they argued together, Kabr appeared before them, and told them to lift the shroud and look at that which lay beneath.
They did so, and found in the place of the corpse a heap of flowers; half of which were buried by the Mohammedans at Maghar, and half carried by the Hindus to the holy city of Benares to be burned--fitting conclusion to a life which had made fragrant the most beautiful doctrines of two great creeds. II The poetry of mysticism might be defined on the one hand as a temperamental reaction to the vision of Reality: on the other, as a form of prophecy.
As it is the special vocation of the mystical consciousness to mediate between two orders, going out in loving adoration towards God and coming home to tell the secrets of Eternity to other men; so the artistic self-expression of this consciousness has also a double character. It is love-poetry, but love-poetry which is often written with a missionary intention.
Written in the popular Hindi, not in the literary tongue, they were deliberately addressed--like the vernacular poetry of Jacopone da Tod and Richard Rolle--to the people rather than to the professionally religious class; and all must be struck by the constant employment in them of imagery drawn from the common life, the universal experience.
It is by the simplest metaphors, by constant appeals to needs, passions, relations which all men understand--the bridegroom and bride, the guru and disciple, the pilgrim, the farmer, the migrant bird--that he drives home his intense conviction of the reality of the soul's intercourse with the Transcendent.
There are in his universe no fences between the "natural" and "supernatural" worlds; everything is a part of the creative Play of God, and therefore--even in its humblest details--capable of revealing the Player's mind. This willing acceptance of the here-and-now as a means of representing supernal realities is a trait common to the greatest mystics.
For them, when they have achieved at last the true theopathetic state, all aspects of the universe possess equal authority as sacramental declarations of the Presence of God; and their fearless employment of homely and physical symbols--often startling and even revolting to the unaccustomed taste--is in direct proportion to the exaltation of their spiritual life.
The works of the great Sfs, and amongst the Christians of Jacopone da Tod, Ruysbroeck, Boehme, abound in illustrations of this law. Therefore we must not be surprised to find in Kabr's songs--his desperate attempts to communicate his ecstasy and persuade other men to share it--a constant juxtaposition of concrete and metaphysical language; swift alternations between the most intensely anthropomorphic, the most subtly philosophical, ways of apprehending man's communion with the Divine.
The need for this alternation, and its entire naturalness for the mind which employs it, is rooted in his concept, or vision, of the Nature of God; and unless we make some attempt to grasp this, we shall not go far in our understanding of his poems. Kabr belongs to that small group of supreme mystics--amongst whom St.
Augustine, Ruysbroeck, and the Sf poet Jallu'ddn Rm are perhaps the chief--who have achieved that which we might call the synthetic vision of God. These have resolved the perpetual opposition between the personal and impersonal, the transcendent and immanent, static and dynamic aspects of the Divine Nature; between the Absolute of www.