Urdu Books biographies, Drama, Poetry and shayari at Rekhta Online E-Books Store in Hindi & English. You can Search for specific Book also. Deewan-e-Ghalib PDF Deewan Mirza Ghalib in Urdu pdf The book "Deewan-e- Ghalib" is a poetry book of the famous poet Mirza Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib in. Mirza Ghalib was born in Agra into a family descended from Aibak Turks who . The title of this book is Love Sonnets of Ghalib and it contains complete Roman.
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Download Diwan-e-Ghalib by Mirza Asadullah Ghalib in PDF format free here [ courtesy of ruthenpress.info and in public domain]. Complete Urdu poetry of famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib in urdu text (deewan-ghalib by urduweb). Any urdu word can be searched in poetry. These are just few lines of poetry of Mirza Ghalib from book Deeewa – E- Ghalib. Along with poetry, each and every poetry has been explained.
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Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Urdu text with English translation Author: New Delhi: Star Publications, Print book: It was sometime during some say that Ghalib decided to move to Delhi, determined to take his place among the aristocracy and get his rightful due as a poet. The move perhaps, was also guided by the fact that the untimely death of his father and uncle had deprived him of an assured niche in the Mughal capital.
Besides, Delhi, the seat of the Mughal court, was a more appropriate setting for Ghalib than Agra. This aspect needs a little elaboration. This went a long way in providing an atmosphere in which intellectual flowering could take place. Ralph Russell, another modern biographer, opines that in the half a century of internal peace, that followed the British political control, Delhi experienced something like a renaissance, a flowering of literature and learning.
This renaissance was manifested in various ways, one of which was the radical Muslim religious reform movement, led by the family of Shah Waliullah, one of the most important thinkers in the history of Indian Islam. This resulted in a long-drawn out conflict between the traditionalists and the radical reformers.
As a corollary to this, Delhi developed as a famous centre of Persian and Arabic studies related to theology, attracting students from as far as Balkh and Bukhara in central Asia. The exodus of the poetic talent to Lucknow was also halted and Delhi again became the centre of a group of distinguished poets.
Urdu too received a new impetus. This revival of poetry also owed a great deal to the encouragement of the Mughal court which, deprived of all far-reaching political power, turned more and more to cultural interests.
It patronized Urdu poetry just as its predecessors had patronized Persian. Under the reign of Bahadur Shah, who himself was a great Urdu poet and wrote under the title ofZafar, the Mughal court became the pivot, guiding the efflorescence in Urdu writing. Regular poetic symposiums mushairahs were held at the palace as well as other places in the city. Gradually, the writing and appreciation of Urdu poetry became essential learning for any aspirant to the cultural life of the city.
Ghalib took his place among the city aristocracy on equal terms and was fully involved in the intellectual life of Delhi.
Prominent contemporaries of Ghalib in the Urdu literary circle were Momin and Zauq, latter being the officially appointed poet laureate of the Mughal court and personal ustad of Bahadur Shah Zafar. However, one important point to note about patronage in the Mughal period is that patronage of learning and letters was one of the expected social functions of the nobility and the established poet could look to receive patronage simply because he was an accomplished poet.
Thus, Ghalib never considered writing occasional panegyrics for, both his Mughal and later British masters, as injurious to his self respect. Ibrahim Zauq was the royal tutor and did receive financial remuneration for his services but it was not possible for the court to extend its largesse to many others.
The rivalry between Ghalib poet laureate of the city and Zauq poet laureate of the Mughal court can be explained in this background. It is not surprising to see Ghalib, invoking past in his writings, which was in sharp contrast to his own financial difficulties in the present. It has been argued that, even though Urdu was the popular living language of the time, it was a product of political chaos and decline and was also not the lingua franca of the surviving imperial order.
Thus, Hali noted that Ghalib did not consider writing in Urdu as an accomplishment.
But unlike his predecessors and contemporaries, whose thoughts were dominated by bitter awareness of the decline of the Mughal Empire and yearning for the return of the former glory, Ghalib did not feel this loss and was prepared to come to terms with the British dominance. He was fascinated by the material achievements, on which British power was based and the possibilities for the future, which these achievements opened up. But he wrote exquisitely in Urdu and later adopted it as the medium of all his prose, including his letters.
Ralph Russell, another modern biographer, considers Ghalib as one of the greatest poet of south Asia and greatest poet of two of its greatest literary languages, Persian and Urdu.
It is true that in the initial phase of his Urdu writing, his poetry was heavily impregnated with Persian, but it was criticized by his friends and parodied by others. Subsequently, he destroyed much of his over Persianised compositions and wrote in a much simpler and purer style.
The ghazal consists of a series of couplets, each one of them encapsulating the entire theme. The range of themes in ghazal is quite vast and any thought, which can be encapsulated in a simple couplet, can be included in its theme. In verse writing the genius of a poet lies in his range of thought and the style of presentation.
Ghalib excelled his predecessors as well as contemporaries in both these aspects.
In the couplets of Ghalib, this aspect occurs with astonishing regularity. He also speaks of compulsions to love, even if the beloved spurns him or even if it violates all the social and religious commands of the community in which the beloved lives. One of the characteristic features of Ghalib, where he seems to have broken from the traditional ghazal poets is that, while treating the experience of love in his poems including his own , he could express it as a detached non-participant observer.
The love which his ghazals portray is an illicit love. Another dimension of love, depicted in these ghazals is that, the beloved she or he may not be a human beloved at all. The poet may express love for God or for any ideal in life to which he may commit or surrender completely. The poet uses a language and symbolism which enables him to speak on different meanings of love at the same time. The depiction of earthly love in the Urdu ghazals of Ghalib and other contemporary poets has to be seen in the context of its legitimacy in the medieval Indian society.
In that age, marriage was an alliance between families to maintain social status, and had nothing to do with passionate, romantic love. But marriage did not always prove to be a safeguard against such a love outside of it. But this love was a severe test for both the lover and the beloved and since permanent union of lovers was non-existent, love ultimately proved to be a tragedy for all concerned.
In a society where segregation of sexes was strictly followed, another outlet of love was homosexuality. Another consequence of the segregation of sexes, along with low educational and cultural level of respectable medieval Indian women, was the institutionalization of the salon of the courtesan.
This also provided the setting for much of the symbolism and imagery of the poetic renaissance of the times. The passionate, illicit love between two human beings is used as symbols of the similar love of the mystic lover for his God, his divine beloved. The whole structure of mystic love is built upon the deep emotional relationship of the lover with God.
In this situation, the seeker of God relies on love of God for guidance without the intervention of the learned or self-proclaimed true guardians of religion.
Such radical methods of the mystic lover are therefore considered by the orthodox as subversive doctrine or in an extreme form, as blasphemy. Thus the mystic lover shares same dangerous prospects as the earthly lover of a human beloved at the hands of the society. Thus, some of his couplets can be taken in earthly sense and others in divine sense but many of them could be taken in both senses at the same time.
In this way, the standard metaphor, used for human beloved proves to be appropriate metaphor for the divine beloved too. At the time of his arrival in Delhi, the intellectual life of the city, as mentioned earlier, was dominated by the religious controversies between traditionalists and radical thinkers.
These controversies were not confined to theologians alone, all educated Muslims were affected by it and, in general terms, allegiance would be given to one side or the other.
Ghalib did not allow his admiration of Haq to dominate his own judgment. He rejects with contempt, their doctrine of prescribed conduct of life motivated by hope of reward and fear of punishment in the life to come. What thought be it sincere? Behind it lies raw greed to win reward for virtuous deeds.
Ghalib never kept the Ramzan fast and was prepared to admit it. He admitted his vices wine drinking and gambling , ridiculed the sermonizers and in general, lived a life-style of flamboyance, whenever his financial condition permitted him to do so.
God, according to Ghalib, was not to be found in the idol in the temple or through obeisance in the mosque. The truly spiritual could not be constrained by such narrow categorization. Underlying this contempt for religious rituals was a profound eclecticism, a deep-seated conviction in the brotherhood of the human race, each of them being symbols of the divinity and love of the one almighty. This eclectic mood itself had played a catalytic role in the development of the Urdu language.
Although Persian was the court language of the Mughals as well as that of the Islamic orthodoxy, it never became the language of the masses. The evolution of Urdu, gaining from Persian, but drawing real substance from the idiom and vocabulary of the everyday language of the people, thus, also went a long way in bringing about a cultural synthesis. The embodiment of the beauty worship could be equated with a beautiful women or a handsome boy.
Here we can get a glimpse of the symbolic use of Hinduism, as the embodiment of the worship of beauty. The orthodox Muslim opposition to the Hindus was also related to their idol worship.
To the mystic thinker like Ghalib however, it is not important whether they worship idols but whether in doing so, they are expressing in their own way, a true love of God. The idol, according to Ghalib, was the symbol of irresistible beautiful mistress that a lover idolizes and adore.
She, at the same time, is also the symbol of the divine beloved. His Urdu prose is mainly in the form of letters. He was a prolific letter writer and some scholars believe that, his place in Urdu literature would have been assured only on the basis of his letters.
His letters provided the foundation to easy and popular Urdu. Before Ghalib, letter writing in Urdu was highly ornamental and artificial. Ghalib changed the whole course of Urdu letter writing by keeping it simple and replacing artificial with natural. From a distance of a thousand miles, you can speak through your pen, and enjoy company despite separation.
His letters were very informal and at times he would just write the name of the person and start the letter. This simple, direct and conversational style was definitely an innovation of Ghalib in Urdu letter writing. Ghalib expended a great deal of time and effort in their composition as he considered this to be a literary pursuit. Aspiring poets also sent him their compositions to seek his advice. In his replies, he invariably put in a couplet or two of his own and gave a detailed account of how the aspiring poet was faring.
Free of conventional artifice, his letters contained vivid descriptions and witty dialogues, literary and lexicographical insights, political commentary and more - all in a simple and supple language. He was a witness to the age of decline and end of the Mughal Empire and also lived to see the Revolt of , and its bloody aftermath. Thus, apart from his literary significance, these letters also have a historical relevance as they provide a detailed first-hand account of the life and times of Delhi during that period.