Reviewing Chemistry Student Edition A Glencoe ProgramThis booklet was written by The Princeton Review, the nation's. Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-. Ms. Zaunbrecher's High School Chemistry Class, Lafayette High School.
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EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: What are some changes in matter that are essential to daily life?. Student Edition PDF For Free, Preface: Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change combines the elements Chemistry: Matter & Change, Student Edition - PDF. As you begin your study of chemistry—the study of matter and the changes that it undergoes—you are probably asking yourself, “Why is chemistry important to me ?” The answer to . Self-Check Quiz ruthenpress.info Section Assessment.
Recall that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Also recall that mass is a measurement that reflects the amount of matter. You know that your textbook has mass and takes up space, but is air matter? You cannot see it and you cannot always feel it. However, when you inflate a balloon, it expands to make room for the air.
The balloon gets heavier. Thus, air must be matter. Is everything matter? What else can you name that is not matter? Mass and weight Have you ever used a bathroom scale to measure your weight? You might not notice a difference in your weight from one place to another, but subtle differences do exist.
Figure 1. Compare and contrast mass and weight. They also use models to test a concept, such as a new airplane design, before it is mass produced. Infer why chemists use models to study atoms. Common usage: the relative heaviness of an object The puppy grew so quickly it doubled its weight in a matter of weeks.
It might seem more convenient for scientists to simply use weight instead of mass. Why is it so important to think of matter in terms of mass? Scientists need to be able to compare the measurements that they make in different parts of the world. Use the diagram below to answer question 5.
Use the diagram below to answer question 7. Atoms are solid matter with positive and negative charges scattered throughout.
B Atoms are solid, positively charged matter with negatively charged electrons scattered throughout. C Atoms are mostly empty space with small, dense, positively charged centers. D Atoms are mostly empty space with small, dense, negatively charged centers. Matter and Change radioactive substance The diagram above shows how alpha, beta, and gamma rays are affected by two electrically charged plates. Based on the paths the rays follow, what are the respective charges of alpha, beta, and gamma rays?
In question 1, the speed of light, c, equals 3. What is the energy of a photon if it has a frequency of 6. A 1s22s2 B 1s22s22p3 C 1s22s22p4 D 1s22s22p5 7 Which of these orbital diagrams represents a chlorine atom in the ground state? Chlorine has an atomic number of A B C 6 The electron configuration for an atom of iron is [Ar] 3d64s2.
Which of the following is the correct electron-dot structure for iron? Matter and Change 8 2p 1s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p The arrangement of electrons in an atom of an element determines the chemical properties of that element. Use the graph below to answer questions 1—3. A The noble gases form very few compounds because they are gases.
B The noble gases form very few compounds because they are rare.
C The noble gases form very few compounds because they are radioactive. D The noble gases form very few compounds because their electron configurations are very stable. Electronegativity 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Atomic Number 1 The electronegativity of an element indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons to form chemical bonds.
A the atomic number increases and the electronegativity increases B the atomic number increases and the electronegativity decreases C the atomic number decreases and the electronegativity increases D 4 A brittle B solid C dull D gaseous the atomic number decreases and the electronegativity decreases 5 2 Metal is to malleable as nonmetal is to — Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties because they have — According to the graph, which of the following elements has the strongest attraction for electrons?
PERIODIC TABLE the principal energy level increases and the first ionization energy increases B the principal energy level increases and the first ionization energy decreases C the principal energy level decreases and the first ionization energy increases D the principal energy level decreases and the first ionization energy decreases Chemistry: As you move down a group — A 18 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 9 The periodic table has an unusual shape because it is divided into blocks representing the energy sublevel being filled with valence electrons.
In the periodic table shown in the diagram, which sequence lists these blocks in s-p-d-f order? According to the graph, what is the approximate first ionization energy for the element with atomic number 16? Heavy water contains deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen. What is the mass number of deuterium? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 Use the diagram below to answer question 4. Eventually, these gases were discovered on Earth in the late s.
What group does this family occupy in the modern periodic table? A Valence electrons move farther from the positively charged nucleus. B Valence electrons move farther from the negatively charged nucleus. C Valence electrons move closer to the positively charged nucleus. D Valence electrons move closer to the negatively charged nucleus. Transition metals with unpaired valence electrons are attracted to a magnetic field.
Which of these elements is NOT able to form a permanent magnet? A Cobalt B Copper C Nickel More than three times as much energy is used to make a new aluminum can than to process a recycled one.
The main reason for this difference is that— D Iron A aluminum is not an abundant element B aluminum has a high melting point C it is difficult to extract aluminum from its ore D aluminum is not a reactive metal 9 In the periodic table, as you move from left to right across a period — A atomic radius increases and ionization energy increases B atomic radius increases and ionization energy decreases C atomic radius decreases and ionization energy increases D atomic radius decreases and ionization energy decreases Chemistry: Which of these is NOT a cation?
Use the table below to answer question 4. Scientists believe that electrons in the outer energy levels of the bonding metallic atoms are free to move from one atom to the next. Because they are free to move, these electrons are often referred to as — The table shows the lattice energy for some ionic compounds. Based on these data, which of these compounds would require the most energy to separate the bonded ions? A The Na and the Cl atoms both lost electrons. B The Na and the Cl atoms both gained electrons.
C The Na atom lost an electron, while the Cl atom gained an electron. D The Na atom gained an electron, while the Cl atom lost an electron. A molecule is formed when two or more atoms form a covalent bond. According to this definition, which of these is NOT a molecule? Number Number of Atoms Prefix of Atoms Prefix 1 2 3 4 5 2 monoditritetrapenta- 6 7 8 9 10 hexaheptaoctanonadeca- 4 When hydrogen and fluorine combine, a polar covalent bond is formed.
Which of these formulas is the best way to express this relationship? What name would be given to the compound PBr5? At room temperature, iodine I2 is a solid and bromine Br2 is a liquid. These molecules have different melting points because of stronger — A covalent bonds in iodine B covalent bonds in bromine C intermolecular forces in iodine D intermolecular forces in bromine Use the diagram below to answer question 6.
Normal 1s 2s 1s 2s 18 s2 orbital B sp orbital C sp2 orbital D sp3 orbital A H2S B H2SO3 C H2SO4 D H2S The bond that holds two fluorine atoms together in an F2 molecule would be classified as nonpolar covalent because — A both atoms are different and the difference in electronegativity is large B both atoms are different and the difference in electronegativity is zero C both atoms are the same and the difference in electronegativity is large D both atoms are the same and the difference in electronegativity is zero 2p 2p Hybridized The diagram shows the electron configuration of a normal carbon atom and the rearrangement of electrons to form four new identical orbits in a hybridized carbon atom.
This type of hybrid orbital is called an — A 8 Which of these is the chemical formula for sulfurous acid? Refer to the diagram below to answer questions 1—6.
Which of these is the correct balanced chemical equation? Which of these is the complete ionic equation for this chemical reaction? A An iron nail changes to a brownish-orange color. B An ice cube melts into liquid water. C An antacid tablet produces bubbles of gas when placed in water. D A piece of zinc raises the temperature of an acid as it reacts with it. Matter and Change 8 The diagram shows the activity series of some metals left and nonmetals right. A student set up four beakers, each containing mL of dilute hydrochloric acid HCl[aq].
She added 5 g of a metal to each beaker in this order: Which metal will NOT react with the acid? How many moles of nitrogen atoms are contained in one mole of Ba NO3 2?
What is the empirical formula for this compound? A amu B mass C molecule D particle What is the total number of atoms contained in 2. What is the mass, in grams, of 0. Its chemical name is — A aqueous magnesium sulfate A 3.
Indium In is a relatively rare element that never occurs as a free metal. It is usually found in a compound that contains After heating, 3. What is the formula for the hydrate? What is the mass in grams of 2. A 11 22 A A 10 8 Potassium nitrate, also known as saltpeter, is used in matches. What is the percent by mass of potassium K in potassium nitrate KNO3? A chemist is about to synthesize tetraphosphorus decoxide by combining X grams of phosphorus with sufficient oxygen to react completely with the phosphorus.
If he wants to determine the amount of tetraphosphorus decoxide that will be produced, all of the following need to be answered before initiating the experiment EXCEPT — A Use the graph below to answer question 4. B What are the number of moles for each reactant?
C What is the mole ratio of the two reactants? D Which is the limiting reactant and which is the excess reactant? How many total iron atoms and oxygen molecules will be combined during the formation of Fe3O4? If this trend continues, how many mole ratios can be formed with a chemical reaction that has a sum of eight reactants and products?
Which of these is NOT a mole ratio for this reaction? A 2 mol Al: Use the graph below to answer question 6. How many moles of carbon dioxide will be produced if 30 moles of propane gas are burned? Matter and Change 10 In the movie The Wacky World of Chemistry, a chemist wrote down the following equation on a chalkboard: Which of the following is defined as a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a given sample of matter? What type of intermolecular force creates the surface tension that allows the stones to skip?
The boiling point occurs when the — Chemistry: Ionic solids such as sodium chloride are easily shattered, but metallic solids such as copper can be easily bent and shaped. This difference occurs because — A ionic solids have low melting points B atoms in metallic solids are not arranged in a regular pattern C covalent bonding between sodium and chlorine keeps the solid rigid D Use the diagram below to answer question Which of these labels should be placed above each of the arrows in the diagram?
F Energy added over the gray arrow; energy released over the black arrow G Particle velocity decreased over the gray arrow; particle velocity increased over the black arrow H Energy released over the gray arrow; energy added over the black arrow J Density decreased over the gray arrow; density increased over the black arrow Diffusion is the term used to describe the movement of one material through another.
The diffusion of gases can be explained by — A relative molar masses B differences in volume C evaporation D random motion Chemistry: Which graph best represents this relationship? A 3 Volume 1 Date: Temperature K 2 You are given a balloon filled with a known volume of helium gas. You place the balloon inside a freezer for an hour. How will the balloon look after being in the freezer? A The kinetic-molecular theory of gases explains the behavior of gases at the molecular level.
All of the following are part of this theory EXCEPT — A gas molecules experience completely elastic collisions B all gas molecules have the same average kinetic energy at the same temperature C gas particles are in constant, random motion D gas molecules are incompressible B C D Reviewing Chemistry Chemistry: Physicians can use liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy warts and other skin growths. Knowing the assumptions of the universal gas law, this should surprise you most because — 7 Helium gas is heated and its volume increases.
C gas particles are too small to be condensed D D if a gas can freeze, that would imply that gases can be kept at cold temperatures Hydrogen gas is cooled and its pressure increases. Which question cannot be answered scientifically? A David has two containers of two different gases at the same temperature and pressure. B What happens to a gas at standard temperature and pressure?
D B when the pressure is increased, the volume of both containers will decrease What happens to a sample of gas at absolute zero? C both containers contain the same number of gas particles D when the pressure is decreased, the temperature of both containers will increase Chemistry: Matter and Change 9 Air bags, which act as safety devices in cars, contain solid sodium azide.
On impact, the sodium azide releases nitrogen gas, which expands the air bag. How could the amount of NaCl that can be dissolved in the solution be increased? A Add more NaCl. B Heat the solution. C Add a second salt. D Transfer the solution to a larger beaker. In some areas. Hard water makes it difficult to get hair.
Suppose you accidentally add more than one drop of detergent to one of the test tubes. Hard water is water that contains large amounts of calcium or magnesium ions. Hypothesize about the effect hard and soft water will have on the ability of a detergent to produce suds. Is there a way to adjust for this error or must you discard the sample and start over?
Use the data table on the next page. You will also collect. Are there any other safety precautions you need to consider? Problem Objectives Materials How can hard water be softened? How do hard and soft water differ in their ability to clean?
Add one drop of dish detergent to each test tube. Then shake each sample for 30s to produce suds. Use a metric ruler to measure the height of the suds. Stopper the tubes tightly. Compare and Contrast Which sample produced the most suds? Which sample produced the least amount of suds? One GPG equals GPG stands for grains per gallon. Use a mL graduated cylinder to measure out mL of distilled water. Stopper the tube. Department of the Interior.
Pour the water into Test Tube D. Use a grease pencil to label three large test tubes D for distilled water. Slowly pour water Sample 2 into Test Tube 2 until you reach the marked height.
Slowly pour the water sample into Test Tube 1 until you reach the marked height. Obtain about mL of water Sample 2 in a beaker from your teacher. Distilled water. Use the table on the next page to determine from which community each water sample originated.
Return all lab equipment to its designated location. Procedure Read and complete the lab Safety form. Conclude Soft water produces more suds than hard water. Rinse all of the liquids down the drain with lots of tap water. Did all your classmates have the same results as you? Why or why not? Apply Scientific Methods Identify the independent and dependent variables in this lab. Date Class 1 Calculate If the 50 mL of hard water that you obtained contained 7.
Inquiry Extension Investigate There are a number of products that claim to soften water. Was there a control in this lab? Error Analysis Could the procedure be changed to make the results more quantitative? Visit a grocery store or home-improvement store to find these products and design an experiment to test their claims. Write a possible hypothesis you might test based on your observation.
Section 1. Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable. What is typically the first step in a scientific method? Give two examples. You notice that when salt is sprinkled on an icy sidewalk. How might you test your hypothesis? Teaching Transparency Worksheets Chemistry: Define the term scientific method.
What is a hypothesis? Write a possible hypothesis you might test based on your observations. Compare and contrast a hypothesis and a theory. Suppose you observe that tadpoles hatched in stagnant water have a lower rate of survival than tadpoles hatched in water that is churned and aerated. Laboratory Safety Class 10 Chemistry: When should you wear safety goggles? When should you read the label on a chemical container? What should you do when you have completed an assignment in the lab?
What should you do if a chemical comes in contact with your skin? What should you do before entering the lab? List at least three things.
What kind of clothing should NOT be worn in the lab? What is the proper way to prepare an acid solution? All CFCs are synthetic chemicals. For each statement below.
This layer is called the 2 up is called the 3. CFC is another name for a chlorofluorocarbon. This level contains a protective layer.
The ozone forms a layer around Earth. The next layer. CFCs were developed as replacements for toxic refrigerants. CFCs are made up of carbon. Without ozone.
Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. In your textbook. The thinning of the ozone layer. CFCs usually react readily with other chemicals. Study Guide Chemistry: Scientists measure the amount of matter in terms of mass. Define each term. Use each term only once. Subtle differences in weight exist at different locations on Earth. Made of Matter Not Made of Matter 4. Your mass on the Moon would be smaller than your mass on Earth.
Inorganic chemistry Answer the following questions. Physical chemistry Compare the macroscopic world with the submicroscopic world. Biochemistry Analytical chemistry Column A Column B The study of matter that does not contain organic chemicals The study of the matter and processes of living things The study of the components and composition of substances Why are chemists interested in the submicroscopic description of matter?
The study of carbon-containing chemicals The study of the behavior and changes of matter and the related energy changes For each branch of chemistry in Column A.
TH conclusions Facts of nature accepted as truth 1. Refers to mass. Hypothesis supported by many experiments RY EO 3. Refers to physical characteristics such as color.
Changes in value based on the value of the controlled variable Study Guide Chemistry: A variable controlled by the experimenter c. For each item in Column A. Write your answers in the spaces below the concept map. The act of gathering information e. Column A Column B 6. Use the words below to complete the concept map.
Molina and Rowland concluded that chlorine. In the space at the left. Molina and Rowland thought that these interactions produced a chemical that could break down chlorine. Molina and Rowland examined interactions that occur in the stratosphere. A hypothesis is a n a. To test their data. Molina and Rowland used a model. Molina and Rowland developed a hypothesis.
Their hypothesis was that CFCs break down in the stratosphere due to interactions with ultraviolet light. A control is a a. A theory is a n a. Based on their data. A constant is a factor that a. What do scientists usually do when a scientific problem first arises?
Seeks to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself 3. Was conducted by Molina and Rowland In your textbook. What kinds of clothing should not be worn in the lab? Which type of research would you be more interested in working in—pure research or applied research? Is undertaken to solve a specific problem 2.
What is technology? Answer the following questions. For each description below. Is used to find CFC replacements 4. A systematic approach used in all scientific study a. A chemical made up of chlorine. Column A Column B 1. Any substance with a definite composition d.
Anything that takes up space and has mass b. A chemical that protects organisms from UV radiation c. A visual.
The act of gathering information 8. The study of matter and the changes it undergoes 7. A judgment based on the information obtained during an experiment 9. The practical use of scientific research f. Which of the following is a set of controlled observations that tests a hypothesis? Add the water to the acid all at once.
Chapter Assessment Chemistry: Explain the relationship between CFCs and the depletion of the ozone layer. Add the water to the acid very slowly. Add the acid to the water all at once. The branch of chemistry that focuses on carbon-containing chemicals is called a. At the end of an experiment. List three safety precautions you can take before entering the laboratory. How should you prepare an acid solution?
Which of the following is NOT matter? What effects might the ozone hole have on humans and other organisms? Add the acid to the water very slowly. Researchers look for a vaccine to prevent AIDS infection. Researchers study the components of living cells.
A researcher works on ways to improve agricultural yields. A researcher designs a more efficient internal-combustion engine. A researcher analyzes different compounds that might be sources of cancer drugs. A researcher observes chimpanzees in their natural habitat to learn about their behavior.
What conclusion can be made based on the predicted data? Write a hypothesis scientists might test based on the graph. The graph below compares the predicted chlorine concentrations in the stratosphere with and without the phase-out of CFCs. What does the graph predict will happen to chlorine concentrations if CFCs are phased out? More than countries agreed to phase out the production of the chemicals.
What is the independent variable in these predictions? What is the dependent variable in these predictions? The chemist decides to apply the following concentrations of phosphorus to the corn plants: What qualitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment? What is the dependent variable?
What hypothesis might the chemist be testing? She knows that phosphorus stimulates plant growth. Draw a table that the chemist might use to record her data over the course of her experiment. She decides to test the effects of different phosphorus concentrations on corn plants over a day period. What quantitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment? Based on the graph. What subsequent experiment might the chemist want to conduct to build on her experiment?
SAT Subject Test: Chemistry Short Answer Answer each question with complete sentences.
Extended Response Answer each question with complete sentences. The curved surface is called a meniscus. Measure the mass of the object using a balance.
Materials balance. Your teacher will identify each object as A. Note that a washer is similar to a short cylinder with a hole through it. Measure and record the final volume in your data table. Obtain several unknown objects from your teacher. Calculate Use the initial and final volume readings to calculate the volume of each mystery object.
Create a data table to record your observations. Measure and record the initial volume in your data table. Because the surface of the water in the cylinder is curved.
Tilt the graduated cylinder. Record the mass and the identity of the object in your data table. Add about mL of water to a graduated cylinder. Calculate Use the calculated volume and the measured mass to calculate the density of each unknown object. Be sure not to cause a splash. You can find the volume of an irregular solid by displacing water. Prepare all written materials that you will take into the laboratory.
A forensics technician claims she can determine if the coin was minted before without altering the coin in any way. Large objects cannot be placed in water to determine their volume. Determine a procedure that could be used to calculate the density of such an object.
What would be the impact on density of increasing mass while keeping volume constant? Increasing the amount of the heavier element in an object would increase the density of the object.
Be sure to include safety precautions and procedure notes. Do you expect the pre pennies or the post pennies would have the higher density? Review the equation for density. What was the make-up of pennies before ? How would you expect the density of pre pennies compare to pennies made post? Between and ? AThe year the coin was minted is important to the case. Use two points on each line to calculate the slope.
Calculate Graph total mass verses total volume for the pre and post. After five trials there will be 25 pennies in the graduated cylinder. Class 2 Review the equation to calculate percent error. Repeat steps 3 through 7. Pour about mL of water into the graduated the mass again.
Plot and label two lines on the graph. Procedure 1.
Cleanup and Disposal Pour the water from the graduated cylinder down the drain. Dry the pennies with a paper towel. Make and Use Graphs 28 Chemistry: Measure the mass of the plastic cup. Record all measurements in your data table. Add 5 pre pennies to the cup. Record the actual volume. Repeat steps 5 and 6 four times. Make and Use Graphs Draw a best-fit line through each set of points.
Add the 5 pennies to the graduated cylinder. Determine the percent error of each average. Verifying the slopes of the lines give you the density of the pre pennies and density of the post pennies. Apply 6. Are they consistent? If not. Error Analysis Determine the percent error in the density of each coin.
Inquiry Extension Compare your results with those from the rest of the class. Infer Can you determine if a penny was minted before or after if you know only its mass? Explain how the relationship among volume.
Calculate a class average density of the pre— pennies and the density of the post— pennies. July The Economist. Section 2.
Exchange rates fluctuate daily. The ones shown on the transparency are for July 15, Show your work when necessary. How much does the portable radio cassette player cost in U. The German cones sell for 1. Which cone costs you more U. Suppose on January 15, , the exchange rates have changed as shown to the right. Use these exchange rates to answer questions 5 and 6.
A video game costs French francs on January 15, What is its price in U. Has the price risen or dropped since July 15, ? A Swiss shopper pays 12 Swiss francs for a candle. A German shopper pays 12 German marks for the identical candle.
In golf, a player tries to use the fewest swings, or strokes, of a club to hit a ball into a series of holes. The player keeps score by counting the number of strokes used for each hole. The lower the number of strokes used, the better the score. Par is a term that refers to the target score for a particular hole.
It is the number of strokes that a player is expected to use to hit the ball into that hole. A player whose score deviates consistently from par at each hole is more precise than one whose score deviates inconsistently.
Which product has the best sound quality? Which has the poorest sound quality? What kind of graph is this? What variables are compared in the graph?
Which product is the best deal? Which is the worst deal? If there are no limits on the amount of money you can spend. Which product costs the most? The least? Based on the data shown. Which group do most Compare the responses of the general population with those of How are they alike? How are they different? Make a graph that compares the political affiliations of What kind of graph is shown on the transparency?
What does the circle represent? Label the appropriate parts of your graph. As Democrats? What kind of graph did you make? What is the greatest difference between the responses of the general population and those of Math Skills Transparency Worksheets Chemistry: Political Supporters Political affiliation Percent of general population who identify with the affiliation Republican 25 Democrat 31 Independent 36 Other party 8 Source: The microwave frequency given off by a cesium atom 7.
Complete the following table. For each SI unit in Column A. Use Table 2—2 in your textbook to arrange the following prefixes in order from largest to smallest. A platinum-iridium cylinder that is stored at constant temperature and b.
Column A Column B 5. A cube whose sides all measure exactly one meter d. Length In your textbook. Mass 3. List the symbols and factors that the following prefixes represent.
How are degrees Celsius converted to kelvins? How many centimeters are in a meter? How many grams are in a kilogram? What is the difference between a base unit and a derived unit? Which temperature scale will you use for your experiments in this class? Is this an SI unit? What is density? How many liters are in a megaliter? What is the three-part process for problem solving? What is dimensional analysis? Complete the following dimensional analysis problems. Convert 5 meters into centimeters.
Convert 50 kilograms into grams. What is a conversion factor? Circle the figures that are written in scientific notation. Change the following data into scientific notation. Convert 55 kilometers per hour into meters per second. Convert 5 liters into kiloliters. Convert 5 centimeters into meters. You may use both terms for some figures. Which of the following is most likely to produce data that are not precise? The difference between an accepted value and an experimental value is called a n a.
Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. When you calculate percent error.
If a term does not apply to a figure. If two measurements are very close to each other. Use the terms precise and accurate to describe the following figures. The ratio of an error to an accepted value is called a n a.
The numeral 9. Round the following to four significant figures. All final to the right of the decimal place are significant. Round The digits that are reported in an answer are called. Complete the following calculations. Zeros that act as are not significant.
Round off the answers to the correct number of significant figures. When you convert to. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the statements. Determine the range of the data that needs to be plotted for each axis.