A DOLL'S HOUSE. " HENRJK IBSEN. TRdNSUTED nr ruthenpress.info dRCIlER. • ~01tb ",n. T. FISHER UNwn;. 26 PATERNOSTER SQUA RE. The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Doll's House, by Henrik Ibsen This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. A room, comfortably and tastefully, but not expensively, furnished. In the back, on the right, a door leads to the hall; on the left another door leads to HELMER's.
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A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen is a publication of the Pennsylvania State University. This Portable. Document file is furnished free and without any charge of any. Ibsen's Nora Helmer is a doll trapped in her house, a condition As a genre study, A Doll's House is a realistic drama that highlights the cultural conflicts. A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as a. pdf: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read.
Rank's and others' seeing Krogstad as morally sick. Blackmail is not the first despicable action Krogstad is motivated to do, if one looks at Krogstad's past, he will find that Krogstad committed crime of forgery. This illegal action causes Krogstad to lose his reputation in society and in the eyes of Rank. Krogstad's defense is that his motivation for such action was to save his wife's life.
In one of his memorable quotations, he criticizes the society and the law which, as he thinks, does not care about motives. The need to commit such a crime is the same as Nora's need to take Torvald to Italy in order to cure him of his illness. From another perspective, Grene 40 sees that the reason which makes Krogstad participate with Nora in her crime is because Nora wants to save Torvald's life, rather than because he is elusive by nature.
In other words, his reason or motivation is only humanitarian. At the beginning of the third act in the play, another motive is exposed. In the meeting between Krogstad and Mrs. Linde, it becomes obvious that there was a romantic relationship between the two in the past. However, Mrs. Linde left Krogstad and married another man for financial reasons. Krogsad himself talks about Mrs. Linde's abandonment as one of his motives.
He states that he was emotionally distracted, and describes Mrs. Linde as a heartless woman. As he describes the psychological condition he was under after the rejection of his love, Krogstad describes himself as a shipwrecked man who clings to a bit of wreckage.
Krogstad's Dramatic Effect Before discussing the dramatic effect Krogstad has on the other characters and on the plot of A Doll's House, it is worth explaining the nature of his relationship with the protagonist Nora with whom the main conflict of the play centers around.
The nature of the relationship between them is described by Brocket as "Ibsen could have made his play melodramatic by depicting Krogstad as a villain and Nora as a heroine".
Therefore, it is an indubitable fact that Nora and Krogstad have the strongest dramatic effect in the play. Now, the question that would be raised is if Krogstad has a dramatic effect on Nora and the other characters in the play? The answer can absolutely be determined by referring to the development of the actions Krogstad brings about by his arrival from his first appearance until the end. In the first act, Krogstad's visit shocks Nora into understanding the realities about the public and social worlds outside the doll's house where she lives.
In the second act, his visit establishes some sort of weird affinity with Nora, especially through the prospect of suicide. In the third act, Krogstad appears not to visit or meet Nora, but to reveal the truth to Torvald by his letter.
Nora seems shocked into understanding the false basis of her marriage and family. The dramatic effect Krogstad has on Nora was not so clear before the announcement that his position at the bank is jeopardized. More apparently, Krogstad's act of blackmail exhibits the dramatic effect he has on Nora. In the first act of the play, Nora tells Mrs. Linde about the hard condition she and Torvald lived in when Torvald was ill. She explains that she obtained the money from her father to take Torvald to Italy for treatment.
Though, by the arrival of Krogstad at the end of the first act, the source of Nora's loan is disclosed to the audience; she committed the crime of forging her father's signature to receive a loan from the bank. Furthermore, Krogstad's act of blackmail and threats drive Nora to her dilemma. According to Siddall 53 much of the play's tension relies on Nora's persuasion to let Torvald save Krogstad's position.
After the official announcement of Krogstad's dismissal from the bank, he appears again to meet Nora in the second act of the play. As a result of his blackmail, Nora reveals that she is ready to commit suicide if it might be the solution for her.
She wants to save her reputation in the eyes of her husband and children, so she finds her death the only way of keeping her reputation intact.
Krogstad still exploits his effect on Nora in persuading her not to kill herself. Krogstad tells Nora that even if she kills herself, her reputation will be ruined. He means that her body will be dead, but her reputation will not. Her crime will be exposed and Torvald will be accused of his wife's crime. After that, Krogstad leaves Nora and on his way out, he puts a letter in the letterbox to inform Torvald of his wife's forgery. Leaving the letter is influential too, for it makes Nora confess to Mrs.
Linde her secret about the loan. In the final act of the play, Krogstad's dramatic effect turns to touch the Helmer family.
He starts accusing Nora of being a liar and a hypocrite. He describes her as his joy and pride in the past who has become the worst criminal in the present. What makes Torvald outraged is not only the crime itself, but also because it leads him to be under the power of the unscrupulous Krogstad.
This is actually the only effect Krogstad has on Torvald in the play. That Torvald seems extremely outraged is because his wife's crime was with Krogstad, not any other person. Otherwise, Torvald is the one who has an effect on Krogstad, for the dismissal from the bank is the most important motive that pushes Krogstad to blackmail.
Now that the truth is uncovered, Krogstad can be seen as contributing to Nora's understanding of the reality of her marriage.
She realized that she is like a doll having no independence in her life; she is admired and played with like a puppet by her husband. Furthermore, Krogstad makes it clear that Torvald's fear of losing his position in society is more important than his family. Unlike Nora, who was seriously affected by Krogstad, Mrs. Linde is the one who manages to change Krogstad. When she tells him that his children need a mother; and she needs to be a mother; they thus all need each other, the changes in Krogstad's personality become apparent.
Most likely, she restores him to his good nature which was abused by society. Another evidence to prove the effect of Mrs. Line on Krogstad is that he decides to take the letter back from the Helmer's letterbox in order not to ruin this family as soon as he gets his past love again. Not only does Krogstad have a special effect at the level of the development of the characters in the play, but also he incites the actions and affects the events of the plot from the first time he appears until the end.
Krogstad can be seen as the character that drives the plot and affects the moral changes of the characters in the play. In fact, the development of the action in the play relies on the presence of Krogstad who causes the climax of the plot when he puts the letter in the letterbox; the actions become more complex and the fate of Nora becomes more ambiguous.
Krogstad's conflict with Nora provides much suspense and thrill for the play. As Rush 12 considers, the rising action in the play begins in act one when Krogstad comes to Nora and informs her about her husband's firing him from the bank; he threatens her that he has the proof of her past crime.
The last appearance of Krogstad in the play is his meeting with Mrs. Linde who informs him of her decision that she wants him again. Although Krogstad intends not to ruin the Helmer family by retrieving his letter from the letterbox, Mrs. Linde tells him that he must not recall the letter because she has entered the Helmer house and has become more aware that Nora and Torvald must have a complete understanding of their relationship; and this would not be possible unless the unhappy secret of forgery is disclosed.
After that, Krogstad leaves the play expressing the big change in his personality. Krogstad says that he has never had such an amazing piece of good fortune in his life.
In Ibsen's play, Krogstad's role ends with regaining his love and revealing the truth of Nora's secret. The revelation of the secret is of great influence on the play. It provides Nora with a real understanding of her life in a house where she is treated like a doll.
She realized that what she looks like in the eyes of her husband is only a beautiful possession; she is loved by her husband in order for him to feel needed. Nora finally manages to reach the truth of her being a human before being a wife and a mother, and she as a human must have independence, personality and beliefs. Ibsen does not design for his antagonist to be punished for his illegal actions, because what he wants from the representation of Krogstad as appears in the play is to introduce a victimized sample in an unfair society.
Therefore, Ibsen lets his antagonist end up in a happy marriage to contradict the end of his protagonist. The relationship between Krogstad and Mrs. Linde represents a subplot contradictory to the main plot that is represented in the relationship between Nora and Torvald.
This contradiction is intended by Ibsen to emphasize the message he wants to convey from his play that is the criticism of the way women were seen in that period of time. Krogstad as the Antagonist of A Doll's House This study supposes that Nils Krogtsad is the real antagonist in Ibsen's A Doll's House, by showing the antagonistic attributes in his characterization, that qualify him to be considered as the antagonist.
To reach a clear conclusion whether Krogstad is the antagonist or not, he would be compared to other characters who are probably classified as antagonistic in Ibsen's controversial play.
The first character to be compared with is Nora, the undoubted protagonist of the play. Although it has been believed by many critics that she is the antagonist as well as the protagonist in the play, depending on the inner conflict she has, her inner conflict doesn't go on throughout the whole events of the play.
At the beginning, she is presented as childlike, a puppet and dutiful character who accepts her wifely and motherly roles without any reservations. Nora's realization that she is trapped in her house starts with the arrival of Krogstad. The inner conflict then becomes obvious at the time when Krogstad threatens and blackmails her. Therefore, by comparing the inner conflict Nora has to the conflict between Nora and Krogstad, the main conflict is of course the one between Nora and Krogstad; that is simply because Nora's inner conflict comes as subsequent to the former.
Wiseman 10 asserts that the central conflict of the story is driven by Nora's crime of forgery to get the bank's loan; Krogstad, who has facilitated the loan, blackmails Nora over this fact.
The second probable antagonist in the play is Nora's husband, Torvald. This claim would be built on Torvald's confrontation with Nora at the end of the play. Torvald is unable to comprehend Nora's point of view, since it contradicts all that he has been taught about the female mind throughout his life.
Furthermore, he is so narcissistic that it is impossible for him to understand how he appears to her, as selfish, hypocritical, and more concerned with public reputation than with actual morality.
Nora leaves her keys and wedding ring, and as Torvald breaks down and begins to cry, baffled by what has happened, Nora then leaves the house, slamming the door behind her. Whether or not she ever comes back is never made clear.
Alternative ending[ edit ] Ibsen's German agent felt that the original ending would not play well in German theatres. In addition, copyright laws of the time would not preserve Ibsen's original work.
Therefore, for it to be considered acceptable, and prevent the translator from altering his work, Ibsen was forced to write an alternative ending for the German premiere. In this ending, Nora is led to her children after having argued with Torvald.
Seeing them, she collapses, and as the curtain is brought down, it is implied that she stays. Ibsen later called the ending a disgrace to the original play and referred to it as a "barbaric outrage". Much that happened between Nora and Torvald happened to Laura and her husband, Victor. Similar to the events in the play, Laura signed an illegal loan to save her husband.
She wanted the money to find a cure for her husband's tuberculosis. At his refusal, she forged a check for the money. At this point she was found out. In real life, when Victor discovered about Laura's secret loan, he divorced her and had her committed to an asylum. Two years later, she returned to her husband and children at his urging, and she went on to become a well-known Danish author, living to the age of Ibsen wrote A Doll's House at the point when Laura Kieler had been committed to the asylum, and the fate of this friend of the family shook him deeply, perhaps also because Laura had asked him to intervene at a crucial point in the scandal, which he did not feel able or willing to do.
Instead, he turned this life situation into an aesthetically shaped, successful drama. In the play, Nora leaves Torvald with head held high, though facing an uncertain future given the limitations single women faced in the society of the time. Kieler eventually rebounded from the shame of the scandal and had her own successful writing career while remaining discontented with sole recognition as "Ibsen's Nora" years afterwards.
Writing in in his book The Foundations of a National Drama, Jones says: "A rough translation from the German version of A Doll's House was put into my hands, and I was told that if it could be turned into a sympathetic play, a ready opening would be found for it on the London boards.
I knew nothing of Ibsen, but I knew a great deal of Robertson and H. From these circumstances came the adaptation called Breaking a Butterfly.
Soon after its London premiere, Achurch brought the play to Australia in The drama was very well received by the Tamil Community in Toronto and was staged again in few months later. The same stage play was filmed at the beginning of and screened in Toronto on 4 May The film was received with very good reviews and the artists were hailed for their performance.
The covenant of marriage was considered holy, and to portray it as Ibsen did was controversial. Strindberg also considers that Nora's involvement with an illegal financial fraud that involved Nora forging a signature, all done behind her husband's back, and then Nora's lying to her husband regarding Krogstad's blackmail, are serious crimes that should raise questions at the end of the play, when Nora is moralistically judging her husband.
And Strindberg points out that Nora's complaint that she and Torvald "have never exchanged one serious word about serious things," is contradicted by the discussions that occur in act one and two. In the last scene, she tells her husband she has been "greatly wronged" by his disparaging and condescending treatment of her, and his attitude towards her in their marriage — as though she were his "doll wife" — and the children in turn have become her "dolls," leading her to doubt her own qualifications to raise her children.
She is troubled by her husband's behavior in regard to the scandal of the loaned money. She does not love her husband, she feels they are strangers, she feels completely confused, and suggests that her issues are shared by many women. George Bernard Shaw suggests that she left to begin "a journey in search of self-respect and apprenticeship to life," and that her revolt is "the end of a chapter of human history.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, using references to reliable sources , rather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Plot Summary. Rank The nursemaid. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts.
The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play. LitCharts From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen. Download this LitChart! Themes All Themes. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel.
Themes and Colors. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in A Doll's House , which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Related Themes from Other Texts. Compare and contrast themes from other texts to this theme…. Find Related Themes! How often theme appears: Act One. Act Two. Act Three. Download it! Act One Quotes. Related Characters: Torvald Helmer speaker , Nora Helmer.
Related Themes: Love and Marriage.