[ Review in Indonesia & English ]. Pernahkah Anda Nah demikian pula bocah yang bernama Oliver Twist. Oliver Twist dalam pelarian!!!. who was in a situation to impart to Oliver Twist, the con- solation and nourishment of which he stood in need. The workhouse authorities replied with humility. What an excellent example of the power of dress, young Oliver Twist was! impart to Oliver Twist, the consolation and nourishment of which he stood in need .
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Where does he come from! Who is he? What is he? He has had a fever. What of that? Fevers are not peculiar to good peope; are they? Bad people have fevers sometimes; havent they, eh?
I knew a man who was hung in Jamaica for murdering his master. He had had a fever six times; he wasnt recommended to mercy on that account. Grimwig is not an easy man. He does not accept someone without knowing where he comes from, what kind of person he is, and the like.
He relates bad people with fever. It means that in Mr. Grimwigs point of view, the bad thing must be come along with the bad people. He is afraid of being contaminated with the bad thing if he has relation with the bad people so that is why he seems to be selective in having relation to the new people.
The elderly female was a woman of wisdom and experience; she knew what was good for children; and she had a very accurate perception of what was good for herself. So, she appropriated the greater part of the weekly stipend to her own use, and consigned the rising parochial generation to even a shorter allowance than was originally provided for them.
Mann, a superintendent of the juvenile workhouse where Oliver is raised. Based on the quotation above, it can be said that she is a kind of corrupt character of the novel.
She is a greedy woman, for she just thinks of her own benefit. She subjects the children injustically by keeping for herself most of the money allotted by the parish for the care of the orphans and neglect them rather steadily. The narrator strenghtens this idea by underlining that Mrs. Mann misuses the stipend which is actually provided for the children for her own use. Get up! Here, when Bill Sikes asks Oliver to wake up, he threatens Oliver with his pistol and saying Ill strew your brains upon the grass.
It strengthens the idea that Bill Sikes has rough manner toward Oliver Twist. Child Labor Child labor is one of kinds of social injustice presented by Dickens in his novel Oliver Twist, such as picking oakum, chimney sweeper, shop keeper, cabin boy, apprenticeship and the like.
The following quotation is one of the examples of child labor presented in the novel. So youll begin to pick oakum tomorrow morning at six oclock, added the surly one in the white waistcoat.
Being the part of the workhouse makes Oliver Twist in his young age should spend several hours in a day to pick oakum. He has to start working on six oclock so that is why he has no chance to attend school. This condition limits Olivers chance to grow better than he could be. They are poverty, social stratification and child labor. In analyzing the novel, this research uses the sociological literature approach initiated by Wellek and Warren in terms of literature as the social document or social content of literary works.
During the Nineteenth Century in England, poverty is one of the serious social and economic problems of English society. It was influenced by the Industrial Revolution which led many unskilled people moved to the big cities to look for a fortune or a better life. To handle this condition the goverment established workhouses. As the government institution, workhouses provided relief for the poor. In the late eighteen-century, different social class can be distinguished by inequalities in such areas as power, authority, wealth, working, and living conditions, life styles, life span, education, religion, and culture.
Early In the nineteenth century working classes and middle classes were already coming in the society.
The basic hierarchical structure formed the upper class, middle class, the lower middle class, the working class, and the under class. On the other words, during the Nineteenth Century England, especially during the Victorian Era, social class divisions were a major part of peoples daily lives. They devided people based on the money they earned, the job they did, the environment they lived and the like.
Based on the researchers reading on history, during the Nineteenth Century in England, child labor is one of social problem faced by the society. It was also a time when child labor reached new extreme.
Children often worked long hours in dangerous factory conditions for very little money. Children were useful as laborers because their size allowed them to move in small spaces in factories or mines where adults couldnt fit, children were easier to manage and control and perhaps most importantly, children could be paid less than adults. Charles Dickens, the author of Oliver Twist had ever been experienced the harsh living and working condition in a workhouse.
It was in , young Charles was withdrawn from school and forced to work at a boot-blacking factory when his father, mother and siblings was sentenced to three months in Marshalsea Debtors Prison under the Insolvent Debtors Act of Child laborers often worked to help support their families, but were forced to forgo an education.
Based on the explanation above, it can be stated that all the kinds of social injustice, such as poverty, social stratification and child labor, presented in Oliver Twist are actually the reflection of what actually happened during the Nineteenth Century in England.
In relation to sociology of literature approach, it can be stated that Charles Dickens Oliver Twist is a kind of social documents which records the social reality during the Nineteenth Century in England.
Through the novel Oliver Twist, Dickens speaks to his readers about the real condition of the society where he lived in. As has been mentioned in previously in this research that the term social injustice refers to the unfair treatment experienced by those who are considered to be marginalized group.
The researcher finds that in the novel, the marginalized group refers to the poor. They suffer poverty and it influences their way of life.
In order stay alive, instead of entering workhouses which is known as a government institution which provides help for the poor, some of the poor turn into crimes, while some others, particularly women, become prostitute. The researcher would like to give some suggestion based on the result of this research. There are a lot of aspects that can be analyzed in Oliver Twist because this novel contains many social issues happenes during the time it was written.
The Dodger and Charley steal the handkerchief of an old gentleman named Mr Brownlow and promptly flee. When he finds his handkerchief missing, Mr Brownlow turns round, sees Oliver running away in fright, and pursues him, thinking he was the thief. Others join the chase, capture Oliver, and bring him before the magistrate. To the judge's evident disappointment, a bookstall holder who saw the Dodger commit the crime clears Oliver, who, by now actually ill, faints in the courtroom.
Mr Brownlow takes Oliver home and, along with his housekeeper Mrs Bedwin, cares for him.
Bill Sikes by Fred Barnard Oliver stays with Mr Brownlow, recovers rapidly, and blossoms from the unaccustomed kindness. His bliss is interrupted when Fagin, fearing Oliver might tell the police about his criminal gang, decides that Oliver must be brought back to his hideout.
When Mr Brownlow sends Oliver out to pay for some books, one of the gang, a young girl named Nancy , whom Oliver had previously met at Fagin's, accosts him with help from her abusive lover, the robber Bill Sikes , and Oliver is quickly bundled back to Fagin's lair. The thieves take the five-pound note Mr Brownlow had entrusted to him, and strip him of his fine new clothes. Oliver, shocked, flees and attempts to call for police assistance, but is dragged back by the Artful Dodger, Charley, and Fagin.
Nancy, alone, is sympathetic towards Oliver and saves him from beatings by Fagin and Sikes. In a renewed attempt to draw Oliver into a life of crime, Fagin forces him to participate in a burglary. Nancy reluctantly assists in recruiting him, all the while assuring the boy that she will help him if she can. Sikes, after threatening to kill him if he does not cooperate, puts Oliver through a small window and orders him to unlock the front door.
The robbery goes wrong and Oliver is shot by people in the house and wounded in his left arm. After being abandoned by Sikes, the wounded Oliver makes it back to the house and ends up under the care of the people he was supposed to rob: Miss Rose and her guardian Mrs Maylie. Monks denounces Fagin's failure to turn Oliver into a criminal, and the two of them agree on a plan to make sure he does not find out about his past.
Monks is apparently related to Oliver in some way. Back in Oliver's hometown, Mr Bumble has married Mrs Corney, the matron of the workhouse where the story first began, only to find himself in an unhappy marriage, constantly arguing with his domineering wife. After one such argument, Mr Bumble walks to a pub where he meets Monks, who questions him about Oliver. Bumble informs Monks that he knows someone who can give Monks more information for a price, and later Monks meets secretly with the Bumbles.
After Mrs Bumble tells Monks all she knows for a price, Monks takes the locket and ring proving Oliver's parents, which had once belonged to Oliver's mother, and drops them into the river flowing under his place. Monks relates these events to Fagin, unaware that Nancy is eavesdropping on their conversations and plans to inform Oliver's benefactors.
Mr Brownlow returns to London, where Oliver sees him, and brings him to meet the Maylies. Now ashamed of her role in Oliver's kidnapping and worried for the boy's safety, Nancy goes to Rose Maylie, staying in London. She knows that Monks and Fagin are plotting to get their hands on the boy again, and offers to meet again any Sunday night on London bridge.
Rose tells Mr Brownlow, and the two then make plans with all their party in London. The first Sunday night, Nancy tries to leave for her walk, but Sikes refuses permission when she declines to state exactly where she is going.
Fagin realizes that Nancy is up to something, perhaps has a new boyfriend, and resolves to find out what her secret is. Meanwhile, Noah has fallen out with the undertaker Mr Sowerberry, stolen money from him, and fled to London with Charlotte. Using the name "Morris Bolter", he joins Fagin's gang for protection and becomes a practicer of "the kinchin lay" robbing of children , and Charlotte is put with the girls.
Fagin sends Noah to watch the Artful Dodger on trial, after he is caught with a stolen silver snuff box; the Dodger is convicted while showing his style, with a punishment of transportation to Australia.
Next, Noah is sent by Fagin to spy on Nancy, and discovers her meeting with Rose and Mr Brownlow on the bridge, hearing their discussion of why she did not appear the prior week and how to save Oliver from Fagin and Monks. Fagin angrily passes the information on to Sikes, twisting the story to make it sound as if Nancy had informed on him, when she had not. Believing Nancy to be a traitor, Sikes beats her to death in a fit of rage that very night and flees to the countryside to escape from the police and his conscience.
There, Sikes is haunted by visions of Nancy and alarmed by news of her murder spreading across the countryside. He returns to London to find a hiding place and intends to steal money from Fagin and flee to France , only to die by accidentally hanging himself while attempting to lower himself from a rooftop to flee from a mob angry at Nancy's murder. Fagin in his cell, by British caricaturist George Cruikshank While Sikes is fleeing the mob, Mr Brownlow forces Monks to listen to the story connecting him, once called Edward Leeford, and Oliver as half brothers, or to face the police for his crimes.
Their father, Edwin Leeford, was once friends with Brownlow. Edwin had fallen in love with Oliver's mother, Agnes, after Edwin and Monks' mother had separated. Edwin had to help a dying friend in Rome, and then died there himself, leaving Agnes, "his guilty love", in England.
Mr Brownlow has a picture of Agnes and had begun making inquiries when he noticed a marked resemblance between her and Oliver. Monks had hunted his brother to destroy him, to gain all in their father's will.