This manual is a user guide for the MS-DOS operating system. It describes Microsoft Version of MS-DOS, and is for anyone who wishes to. MS-Dos 6 Concise User's ruthenpress.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. in the documentation, but you can type them in any combination of upper- and lower-case letters. Most people type all parts of a DOS command, including the.
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helped ensure the technical accuracy of the PC DOS documentation-a very .. version oi PC DOS or MS-DOS" ( or higher) installed on the haid disk. This tutorial gives you an opportunity to try basic MS-DOS commands. MS-DOS displays this information to let you know how it is configuring your computer. In the personal computer operating systems MS-DOS and PC DOS, user types a line of text at the operating system command prompt.
Thus knowing how to use the command line can be extremely valuable. This launches cmd. Despite its resemblance to a DOS windows, cmd. Now that you have successfully accessed the command prompt, what is there to do here? To operate at command prompt level, you need to know some commands. Let me give you some basics to play with. Help First let me say that there is intrinsic help in the command prompt. We actually saw an example of a switch in the previous section. Note that you can add several switches to each command, but always leave a space between the command and each switch.
There are some useful switches to it. Pick a directory seen in the previous dir listing. Copying Files This section describes how to copy a single file and a group of files. To copy a file, you will use the copy command. When you use the copy command, you must include two parameters: You separate the source and destination with a space. The copy command follows this pattern: Return to the root directory by typing the following at the command prompt: Change to the DOS directory by typing the following at the command prompt: To copy the EDIT.
The command you just typed copied the file from its source to its destination.
By specifying C: In this section, you will first view a group of files by using wildcards, and then copy the files using wildcards.
Before you begin this section, make sure your command prompt looks like the following: View all the files in the DOS directory that end with the extension. TXT by typing the following at the command prompt: This command lists all files and subdirectories in the current directory that end with the extension.
The asterisk matches the first character of the filename and all other characters that follow it, up to the period. TXT extension. To copy the files with a. Renaming Files This section explains how to rename files. To rename a file, you will use the ren command. The ren command stands for rename.
When you use the ren command, you must include two parameters. The first is the file you want to rename, and the second is the new name for the file.
You separate the two names with a space. The ren command follows this pattern: TXT l. Deleting Files This section explains how to delete, or remove, a file that you no longer want on your disk.
To delete a file, you will use the del command. The del command stands for delete. Deleting a File In this section, you will delete two files using the del command. Before you begin, make sure your command prompt looks like the following: To delete the EDIT. HLP file 1. Delete the EDIT. HLP file by typing the following at the command prompt: To confirm that you deleted the file successfully, type the following at the command prompt: HLP file should no longer appear in the directory list.
Deleting a Group of Files To delete files in the current directory that end with the extension. TXT by using wildcards 1. View all files that end with the extension. TXT appears. Make sure that these are the files you want to delete. When you are deleting files by using wildcards, this step is very important.
It will prevent you from deleting files accidentally. Delete all files ending with. To confirm that all the files with the extension.
TXT have been deleted, type the following at the command prompt: Formatting a Floppy Disk When you download new floppy disks, you must generally format them before you can use them.
Caution Any data already on the disk you format will be erased, so make sure you select a disk that does not contain information you may need later. To format a floppy disk 1. This command specifies that you want to format the disk in drive A. Insert new diskette for drive A: If you want to format a disk that fits only in drive B, type format b: Insert the disk you want to format in drive A label-side up. The following message appears: When the format is complete, the following message appears: If you have another disk to format, press Y.
If not, press N. It also introduced some important terms-file, directory, and drive-that you need to understand to use MS-DOS effectively. This section provides more information about these terms and explains how MS-DOS organizes information.
Files A file is the primary unit of storage on your computer. For example, when you use a word-processing program to write a letter, you store the letter in its own file.
Every file has a name, which generally indicates what type of information the file contains. The files on your computer come from various sources. These files contain code and other information that is necessary to make your computer and applications run.
Before long, there will be hundreds or even thousands of files on your computer. This can make it difficult to locate specific files.
Directories Storing groups of files in different directories makes files easier to find. Like files, directories can be created by you or by an application. The Current Directory Directories would be hard to use if you didnt know which one you were in.
MS-DOS indicates which directory you are in by displaying the directorys name in the command prompt.
For example, the following command prompt indicates that you are in the DOS directory: The directory you are in is called the current directory. Knowing which directory is current helps you find files and helps you move from one directory to another more easily.
You do not have to be in the directory that contains the files you want to use, but the commands you type will be shorter if you are. Subdirectories Directories can contain other directories. A directory within another directory is called a subdirectory. By creating subdirectories, you can better categorize your files. The Root Directory Strictly speaking, all directories are subdirectories, except for one, which is called the root directory.
In this guide, the term subdirectory is used only to emphasize the relationship between two directories. The root directory is the starting point from which all other directories branch out. When the root directory is the current directory, the command prompt appears similar to the following: Because the root directory is the basis for all other directories, you cannot delete it. Avoid unnecessarily storing files in the root directory. There is a limit to the number of files and directories the root directory can hold.
Drives Just as a directory is a group of files, a drive, which is always represented by a drive letter, is a group of directories. Drives are usually associated with a piece of hardware called a disk. A disk is a flat piece of metal or plastic on which data is stored.
The most common types of disks are the hard disk, which is inside your computer, and the floppy disk and compact disc, which you insert into a slot either in or next to your computer.
Your first floppy disk drive is drive A. Your second floppy disk drive, if you have one, is drive B. Your hard disk, or at least part of it, is called drive C. Every drive, no matter what type it is, has one root directory. Using Paths to Specify the Location of Files A path is the course that leads from the root directory of a drive to the file you want to use.
To specify the same path at the command prompt, you would type it as shown in the following illustration:. TXT file.
The first letter and colon C: MS-DOS recognizes paths up to 67 characters long including the drive letter, colon, and backslashes. Naming Files and Directories Every file and directory, except for the root directory on each drive, must have a name. The following list summarizes the rules for naming files and directories.
File and directory names: Can be up to eight characters long. In addition, you can include an extension up to three characters long. Are not case-sensitive. It does not matter whether you use uppercase or lowercase letters when you type them.
Can contain only the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9, and the following special characters: No other special characters are acceptable. Cannot contain spaces, commas, backslashes, or periods except the period that separates the name from the extension. Cannot be identical to the name of another file or subdirectory in the same directory. Using Extensions Most filenames have two parts: These parts are separated by a period. The name before the period can be up to eight characters long and should reflect the contents of the file.
The extension after the period can be up to three characters long. Extensions can also be used in directory names, but are not commonly used for that purpose. The following are examples of commonly used extensions for filenames: COM, or. BAT These extensions are used for files that contain programs.
If you type the name of a file containing one of these extensions at the command prompt, MS-DOS will run the program that the file contains. TXT This extension is commonly used for unformatted text files. SYS This extension is commonly used for device drivers, which are files that enable your computer to communicate with hardware devices.
Many applications name files using an extension that is unique to that application. Using Wildcards If you want to carry out a task for a group of files whose names have something in common, you can use one or more wildcurds to specify groups of files.
MS-DOS recognizes two wildcards: You can use wildcards to replace all or part of a files name or extension. The following table shows examples of wildcards: You can include multiple wildcards in a command. For example, the following command lists all the files from the current directory: If you are using a mouse, click the name of the command you want information about.
If the command does not appear on your screen, click the arrow at the bottom of the scroll bar on the right side of your screen until the command comes into view. If you are using a keyboard, press the key that represents the first letter of the command you want information about. The first command beginning with that letter is selected. If this is not the command you want, continue pressing the key until the command you want is selected, and then press ENTER.
At the command prompt, type help followed by a space and the name of the command you want information about. For example, for help with the copy command, type the following at the command prompt: Most commands have three associated topics: Syntax, Notes, and Examples. When you choose a command from the table of contents or type help followed by a command name at the command prompt, the Syntax topic appears first.
If the topic has associated Notes or Examples topics, you can choose those topics by carrying out the following procedure. To choose Notes or Examples l. If you are using a mouse, click the Notes or Examples button at the top of the help screen.
If you are using a keyboard, press N for Notes or E for Examples. When you are in a Notes or Examples topic, you can return to the Syntax topic by using either your mouse or your keyboard. To choose Syntax l. If you are using a mouse, click the Syntax button at the top of the help screen. If you are using a keyboard, press S for Syntax. To search for text 1. From the Search menu, choose Find.
The Find dialog box appears. In the Find What box, specify the text you want to search for. If you want to find only whole-word occurrences of the search text, select the Whole Word check box.
When it finds an occurrence of the text you specify, it displays the topic in which the text was found. To find the next occurrence of the search text, press F3. If you are using a mouse, open the File menu, and then choose the Exit command by clicking its name on the File menu.
To display the syntax of a command l. On a single screen, it can display the drives, directories, files, and applications that are available for you to use. The names of these menus are located in the menu bar at the top of the screen. In the menu bar, click the name of the menu that contains the command you want to use.
The menu opens. Click the name of the command or task you want to carry out. Press the ALT key. Press the first letter in the name of the menu that you want to open. For example, to open the View menu, press V. Or press the highlighted letter that. If you are using a mouse, open the File menu, and then choose the Exit command. If you are using a mouse, choose Shell Basics from the Help menu.
If you are using a mouse, choose Using Help from the Help menu. If you are using a mouse, click the Close button at the bottom of the Help window. If you are using a keyboard, press ESC. Managing Your System MS-DOS 6 includes several programs that you can use to manage and protect your data and improve the performance of your computer.
To keep your computer in top working order, you should use these programs on a regular basis. Backing Up Your Files Backing up your files safeguards them against loss if your hard disk fails or you accidentally overwrite or delete data.
Using Backup, you can return to older file versions, move backed up files off your hard disk, and transfer files easily from one computer to another. Backup includes extensive online help for commands, procedures, and dialog boxes. To get Help l. Press Fl when Backup displays the screen, window, or dialog box you want more information about. You can back up your data in three ways: A full backup backs up all the files that you select before starting the backup.
An incremental backup backs up only files that have changed since your last full or incremental backup. A differentia1 backup backs up only the files that have changed since your last full backup. For a backup strategy to be effective, you should back up your data in regular cycles. A backup cycle begins when you fully back up your files and includes all subsequent incremental or differential backups. A new backup cycle begins when you perform the next full backup of the same set of files.
Using Setup Files Before you begin a backup, you must select files, settings, and options. Y OU can store these selections in setup files. Setup files simplify the backup process by providing a standard set of options that reflect all the selections you made for a particular backup.
You can create up to 50 setup files and save them with different names. Backup uses setup files to identify which files to back up and what type of backup to perform. The file also contains information that Backup gathered during the compatibility test, such as the size of the disks used in your floppy disk drive s.
For instructions on using setup files, carry out one of the following procedures: If you are using Backup for Windows, choose Index from the Help menu. Under the Miscellaneous section, choose Setup Files.
When the Backup Commands and Options screen appears, choose any of the first three topics.
Every full, incremental, or differential backup results in a backup set, which Backup creates and writes to floppy disks or other storage media. You can create any number of backup sets during a backup cycle.
As part of the backup process, Backup creates a backup catalog that contains information about the files you backed up. When you need to restore one or more files, you can load the backup catalog and easily select specific files from a backup set. Backup gives each backup catalog a unique filename. Each character in the catalogs filename contains information about a particular backup set.
Each time you perform a full backup using a specific setup file, Backup creates a master catalog. The master catalog keeps track of all the backup catalogs that were created during the backup cycle.
When you begin a new backup cycle by performing the next full backup, Backup creates a new master catalog. You use the master catalog if you need to restore a complete backup cycle.
When you back up files, Backup places one copy of the backup catalog on your hard disk and a second copy on the medium that contains your backup set. If you delete the catalog from your hard disk or the catalog on your hard disk is damaged, you can retrieve the catalog from the backup set you created. Using Backup This section describes how to start a backup, use setup files, select which files to back up, and select Backup options.
The first time you start Backup, you will receive a message about running a compatibility test that Backup uses to adjust to your computers hardware.
Backup program files must be located on your hard disk. You cannot start Backup from a floppy disk. Choose the Backup button. The following screen appears:. To start a backup by using Backup for Windows. Or choose the Backup command from the Tools menu in File Manager.
You specify which files Backup should back up by selecting one or more drives and indicating which files on those drives to include or exclude from a backup. To back up all the tiles on a drive 1.
A message appears stating that Backup is reading disk or directory information. When Backup has completed reading the disk, All Files appears next to the drive letter you selected. Repeat step 1 for each drive you want to back up. To back up selected directories or files 1. Choose the Select Files button.
The Select Backup Files screen appears. If the drive you want is not displayed, select the correct drive, and then select the directory that contains the tiles you want to backup. Repeat this until you have selected all the files in the directory that you want to back up.
A mark appears next to the directory name and the names of all the files in the directory that you selected. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have selected all the files you want to backup. When you finish selecting files, choose OK. The message All Files appears after the selected drive letter. To select backup options 1. In the Backup dialog box, choose the Options button. A Backup options dialog box appears. Repeat this until you have selected all the options you want. A mark appears in the check box beside each option you selected.
When you finish selecting Backup options, choose OK. Configuring Backup If you change your hardware configuration by adding a new video display adapter, mouse, or disk drive to your computer, you may need to change the configuration of Backup. To configure your video display and mouse 1. From the main screen, choose the Configure button. The Configure dialog box appears. In the Configure dialog box, choose the Video and Mouse button.
The Video and Mouse Configuration dialog box appears. Change the configuration of your video display and mouse, as necessary, and then choose OK. To save your configuration changes so they can be used for later backup sessions, choose the Save button in the Configure dialog box.
To apply these changes only to your current backup session, choose OK. To configure backup devices 1. From the Configure dialog box, choose the Backup Devices button. The Backup Devices dialog box appears. Change the configuration of your backup devices, as necessary, or choose the Auto Config button to configure your backup devices automatically, and then choose OK.
Configuring Backup for Windows If you use Backup for Windows, you can specify the types of floppy disk drives installed on your computer. The changes you make take effect immediately and remain in effect until you quit Backup. To configure drives 1. From the main Backup window, choose the Configure button. A screen similar to the following appears:. If you want Backup to configure your drives automatically, choose the Auto Floppy Configure button.
Do not carry out the remaining steps in this procedure. If you want to configure drives yourself, select the first drive you want to configure.
Open the list box containing drive configurations, and select the configuration you want. If you want to configure another drive, repeat the second half of step 2, and then repeat step 3. To save the configuration for later backup sessions, quit Backup. The Exit Backup dialog box appears. Select the Save Configuration check box, and then choose OK. Comparing Files After you back up files, you can use the Compare command to verify that the backup set contains exact copies of the original files on your hard disk.
You can compare one file, selected files, or all files in a backup set. For instructions on using Compare, choose the Compare button from the main screen or window, and then press F1. Restoring Files Restoring files transfers them from a backup set to the location you specify. To restore a backup set 1. In the main Backup screen, choose the Restore button. To specify the catalog that identifies the backup set you want to restore, open the Backup Set Catalog list box. If you use Backup for Windows, a list of available catalogs appears.
Select the catalog you want to use and then press TAB. Open the Restore From list box. Select the drive that contains the files you want to restore, and then choose OK. Type the path of the files you want to restore, and then press TAB.
If you use Backup for Windows, a list of drives appears. Select the drive that contains the files you want to restore, and then press TAB. In the Restore Files box, choose the drive that contains the files you want to restore. The words All Files appear next to the drive letter. The Select Restore Files screen appears. Select the directory that contains the files you want to restore. Backup displays a list of the files that are in the directory you selected. Repeat this until you have selected all the files in the directory that you want to restore.
To specify the destination for the files you want to restore, open the Restore To list box. Select the destination for the files you want to restore, and then choose OK. If you use Backup for Windows, a list of locations appears. Select the destination for the files you want to restore, and then press TAB.
If you want to change Restore options, choose Options. Select or clear the options you want to change, and then choose OK. To start restoring your files, choose Start Restore. Backup displays status information while it restores the files.
DMA buffer size too small. You cannot back up, compare, or restore files until you increase the DMA buffer size. To increase the size of the DMA buffer if you use Windows 1. INI file, which is located in your Windows directory, by using any text editor. Find the [Enh] section of the file, and then add the following line: INI file, and then quit the text editor. If you are running Windows, quit Windows. Restart Windows. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses Computer viruses are programs designed to replicate and spread, sometimes without indicating that they exist.
Computer viruses can produce a variety of symptoms on your computer. In extreme cases, viruses can damage files and hard disks. If a virus infects your computer, you might need a startup disk to restart your computer. Its important to make the disk before your computer is infected by a virus. To create a startup disk, carry out the following procedure.
To create a startup disk 1. Insert an unformatted floppy disk in drive A, and then type the following at the command prompt: Copy the Anti-Virus files to your startup disk by typing the following at the command prompt: Anti-Virus Help Anti-Virus includes comprehensive help on dialog boxes, options, and tasks. Scanning for Viruses Anti-Virus protects your computer from viruses by scanning your computers memory and disk drives.
The Main Menu appears. To scan the drive from which you started Anti-Virus, skip to step 5. To scan a different drive, proceed to step 3. Choose the Select New Drive button. Drive letters appear in the upper-left area of your screen. Select the drive you want to scan. Anti-Virus reads file information on the drive you selected. To detect viruses and have Anti-Virus prompt you if it finds one, choose the Detect button, and then choose the action you want to take.
A status screen appears after Anti-Virus has finished scanning your computers memory and the drive you selected. To scan for viruses using Anti-Virus for Windows 1. From the Microsoft Tools group, choose the Anti-Virus icon. When the screen appears, choose the drive in the Drives box you want to scan by clicking it with your mouse or by selecting it with the arrow keys and then pressing the SPACEBAR.
Anti-Virus reads file information on the drive you chose. Repeat step 2 for each drive you want to scan. To detect viruses and remove them from your computer, choose the Detect and Clean button.
To detect viruses and have Anti-Virus prompt you if it finds one, choose Detect, and then choose the action you want to take. When Anti-Virus completes scanning your computers memory and the drives you selected, a status screen appears.
If you are using Anti-Virus for Windows, you can automatically scan a drive you specify each time you start Anti-Virus.
BAT file: BAT file includes this command, Anti-Virus searches your computers memory and local drives for viruses each time you start your computer. To specify a startup command for Anti-Virus for Windows 1. From the Microsoft Tools group, select but do not choose the Anti-Virus icon. From the Program Manager File menu, choose Properties. The Program Item Properties dialog box appears.
In the Command Line box, specify the drive you want Anti-Virus to scan automatically. The drive letter should follow the MWAV. EXE command that is already in the Command Line box.
These describe either items or actions which you face during your quest. Messages may be followed by either the word More or Cont.
More indicates that another message follows the one currently displayed. Cont appears if a message is too long to fit onto the top line. If a message disappears before you get a chance to read it, press F4 or CTRL and r to repeat the same message. To engage them in combat, move directly into them with your directional keys. Blow by blow descriptions of the battle will appear at the top of the screen.
Sometimes, a monster will be sleeping and you can sneak by or attack it unawares. But remember, discretion is the better part of valor; it is most discrete to let sleeping monsters lie. Therefore you must devise a play strategy that includes all possibilities.
If you are defeated in battle, pull yourself up by your bootstraps and fight again. If your strategy in discovering the secrets of the dungeon or battling your adversaries fails you, try another.
Here are some examples: Practice fighting the monsters at easier levels to develop a strategy for the more difficult adversaries you'll encounter deeper in the dungeon. Stalk certain foes with your bow and arrow, remaining safely at a distance. Magic wands and staffs are also effective for fighting powerful adversaries from a distance. To pick up an object, move over it, and it will be added to your pack. To find out what you have in your pack at any time, press the F7 function key or i for an inventory.
The supplies and weapons you carry with you can be useful in many ways. You can drink potions for power, read scrolls for guidance, wield wands or maces in offense, or wear magical armor in defense. Many moves require additional information, in which case you will be asked to select an item in your pack by pressing a lettered key or a directional key.
If at this time you decide not to continue with the command, press the ESC key to cancel. This will move your character continuously, stopping only when you hit a monster, door, wall, or other obstacle. After you have learned to move skillfully through the rooms and passageways, you may want to move faster.