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My basic conviction is that these genuinely Arab concepts and terms surviving in early Islam should not be considered as is frequently done as antiquarian relics, but as living and potent elements, as creative forces which helped to generate the new social values and historical achievements characteristic of the early stages of Islamic society and history. The present studies must necessarily limit themselves to some selected ideas and concepts, as ,veIl as to a restricted nmnber of literary texts.
A fuller and more exact picture of the spiritual background of early Islam would naturally require the examination of many other aspects of early Arab life, secular as well as religious.
New York, January In order not to exceed the limits of a brief survey, I have been compelled to confine nlyself to certain basic notions, illustrative of the ideological and psychological background of primitive Islam.
I , placed this view, which had been current before, on a scientific basis. The names of certain persons are frequently preceded by al-1nal' lU, as al-mar'u, Nii! I have no doubt that al-ma1'lu is to be understood here in an emphatic sense: "one possessed of mttrfiwah"; it must be assumecl that the abstract noun al-muruwah is derived from al-marlu in this specific application. Tor Andrae Die Person Nlohamm. I question the particularly individualistic character of the concept din in early Islam, without being able to.
In my opinion, such contrast does not exist at all. In fact, it is one of the nlain ideals of Islamic religion: lii dina bilii muruwatin "there is no religion without muriiwah", i.
Goldziher tries, of course, to substantiate his viewpoint by certain utterances of Mul. I, too, regard this source as highly important, as it confirms to a large extent my own view, diametrically opposed to his. Goldziher l. Bekehrte sich alsojemand ehrlich ZUlli Islanl, so bekannte cr sich zu Tugenden, die dem arabischen Sinne als Niedrigkeiten galten. We entered Medina and there came out the young ladies of the household. They saw her hadrat Safiyya and blamed her for falling down.
Zaid went on until he came to her and she was fermenting her flour. He Zaid said: As I saw her I felt in my heart an idea of her greatness so much so that I could not see towards her simply for the fact that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him had made a mention of her. So I turned my back towards her. She said: I do not do anything until I solicit the will of my Lord. So she stood at her place of worship and the verse of the Qur'an pertaining to her marriage were revealed, and Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him came to her without permission.
He the narrator said: I saw that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him served us bread and meat until it was broad day light and the people went away, but some persons who were busy in con- versation stayed on in the house after the meal. Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him also went out and I also followed him, and he began to visit the apartments of his wives greeting them with the words : As-Salamu 'alaikum, and they would say: Allah's Messenger, how did you find your family hadrat Zainab?
He the narrator stated: I do not know whether I had informed him that the people had gone out or he the Holy Prophet informed me about that.
He moved on until he entered the apartment, and I also went and wanted to enter the apartment along with him, but he threw a curtain between me and him, as the verfes pertaining to seclusion had been revealed, and people were instructed in what they had been instructed.
Ibn Rafii had made this addition in his narration:" O you who believe, enter not the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meBunani one of the narrators said: What did he serve in the wedding feast? He Anas said: He fed them bread and meat so lavishly that they the guests abandoned it of their own accord after having taken them to their hearts' content.
Book , Number Anas b. Malik Allah be pleased with him reported: When Allah's Apostle may peace be upon him married Zainab bint jahsh, he invited people to the wedding feast and they ate food. They then sat there and entered into conversation. He the Holy Prophet made a stir as if he was preparing to stand up, but the persons busy in talking did not stand up.
When he the Holy Prophet saw it, he stood up and when he did so, some other persons stood up. Then they stood up and went away. He said: Then I came and informed Allah's Apostle may peace be upon him that they had gone away. He the Holy Prophet then came there until he entered the apartment. I also went and was about to enter, when he hung a curtain between me and him and it was on this occasion that Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, revealed this verse:" O you who believe, enter not the houses of the Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meal, not waiting for its cooking being finished to the words " Surely this is serious in the sight of Allah" xxxiii.
Malik Allah be pleased with him reported: I was the best informed among the people pertaining to Hijab veil and seclusion.
Ubayy b. Ka'b used to ask me about it. Anas Allah be pleased with him thus narrated: The Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him got up in the morning as a bridegroom of Zainab bint jahsh Allah be pleased witt her as he had married her at Medina.
He invited people to the wedding feast after the day had well risen. There sat Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and there kept sitting along with him some persons after the people had stood up for departure ; then Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him stood up and walked on and I also walked along with him until he reached the door of the apartment of 'A'isha Allah be pleased with her. He then thought that they those who had been sitting there after meal had gone away.
So he returned and I also returned with him, but they were still sitting at their places.
So he returned for the second time and I also returned until he reached the apartment of 'A'isha. He again returned and I also returned and they had by that time stood up, and he hung a curtain between me and him at the door of the apartment of Hadrat Zainab, where he had to stay , and Allah revealed the verse pertaining to veil.
Malik Allah be pleased with him reported: Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him contracted marriage and he went to his wife. My mother Umm Sulaim prepared hais and placed it in an earthen vessel and said: Anas, take it to Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and say: My mother has sent that to you and she offers greetings to you, and says that it is a humble gift for you on our behalf, Messenger of Allah.
So I went along with it to Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and said: My mother offers you salutations, and says that it is a humble gift for you on our behalf. He said: Place it here, and then said: Go and invite on my behalf so and so and anyone whom you meet, and he even named some persons. He Anas said: I invited whom he had named and whom I met. I one of the narrators said: I said to Anas: How many persons were there? He Anas said: They were about three hundred persons.
Then Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said to me : Anas, bring that earthen vessel. They the guests then began to enter until the courtyard and the apartment were fully packed.
Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him said: Make a circle of ten guests , and every person should eat from that nearest to him. They began to eat, until they ate to their fill. A group went out after eating the food , and another group came in until all of them had eaten. He the Holy Prophet said to me: Anas, lift it the earthen vessel , so I lifted it, but I could not assess whether it had more food when I placed it before Allah's Messenger or when I lifted it after the people had been served out of it.
A group among them the guests began to talk in the house of Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him was sitting and his wife had been sitting with her face turned towards the wall. It was troublesome for Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him , so Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him went out and greeted his wives.
He then returned. When they the guests saw that Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him had returned they thought that it their overstay was something troublesome for him.
He the narrator said: They hastened towards the door and all of them went out.
And there came Allah's Messenger may peace be upon him and he hung a curtain and went in, and I was sitting in his apartment and he did not stay but for a short while. He then came to me and these verses were revealed.