In Activists beyond Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink examine a type of pressure group that has been largely ignored by political analysts: networks. pdf. Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink — Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Activists Beyond Borders is the first book to provide a framework for. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics / M.E. Keck, K. Sikkink. | Obra que reconstruye el origen.
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Keck and Sikkink - Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Diunggah oleh northernlites. PDF version of "Activists Beyond Borders. Keck, Margaret E, () "Transnational advocacy networks in International politics: Introduction" from Keck and Sikkink, Activists. Beyond Borders: Advocacy . advocacy networks often reach beyond policy change to . Network activists can operate strategically within the more Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy.
In what follows, I will, first, summarise why these features explain the continued relevance of Keck and Sikkink's work. I will then raise questions about each of them. Others endure because they effectively synthesise a cluster of previous work that had not previously been brought together. Still others return to traditional fields of inquiry with fresh new approaches. Interdisciplinary reach. Keck and Sikkink were both trained at Columbia, one of the few institutions that took seriously the close relationship between comparative politics and international relations.
Such field bridging often produces tepid findings, but in this case it enriched both the findings and the theory of the work. More than almost anyone else, 4 I hasten to mention as another field bridger my colleague Peter Katzenstein, whose work has made him a stalwart of both IR and comparative politics.
I will have more to say about this move below, but it needs to be underlined how far outside the comfort zone of both IR and comparative politics Keck and Sikkink reached, drawing heavily on sociological studies of both networks and movements. Not only did Keck and Sikkink draw on perspectives from comparative politics and sociology; their work was ecumenical even within the IR field.
In their work, they wrote, Rationalists will recognize the language of incentives and constraints, strategies, institutions and rules, while constructivists and social constructivists will be more comfortable with our emphasis on norms, social relations and intersubjective understandings.
We are convinced that both matter; whilst recognizing that goals and interests are not exogenously given, we can think about the strategic activity of actors in an intersubjectively structured political universe. Transnational mechanisms and processes: the boomerang pattern. They argue that Many transnational advocacy networks link activists in developed countries with others in or from less developed countries.
These kinds of linkages are most commonly intended to affect the behavior of states. When the links between state and domestic actors are severed, domestic NGOs may directly seek international allies to try to bring pressure on their states from outside. In subsequent work, Sikkink came closer to Tilly's approach when she described alternatives to the boomerang effect.
In this, their work presaged the growing role of mechanisms and processes in the field of contentious politics that was pioneered by Charles Tilly. How did Keck and Sikkink specify these links? In other words, the boomerang is best understood, not as a static schema but as a guide to examining the dynamic relations in transnational politics. This is what I regard as the most important of Keck and Sikkink's contributions.
Three queries The sign of an enduring work is not only that it makes a splash in a quiescent body of research — as Keck and Sikkink's work surely did in the s — but that it triggers a debate about issues that the work puts on the agenda. Lack of clarity about international organisations.
As I argued above, Keck and Sikkink's unwillingness to take sides in IR's paradigm battles was refreshing — at least to this reader. But perhaps a bit more paradigmatic selectivity would have helped their work to gain more clarity? For example, although international organisations are centrally placed in the boomerang that they sketch in their book , p.
Beyond the boomerang. As I argued above, the boomerang effect helped Keck and Sikkink bring together actors who are more commonly studied separately — transnational NGOs, states, and domestic actors and movements.
For example, since the publication of Keck and Sikkink's landmark work, other scholars have produced a wealth of research on these relationships.
For example, both Sally Merry and Sean Chabot have specified how the process of diffusion operates in transnational space; Donatella della Porta has shown how transnational coalitions have grown out of disputes around international organisations ; and, together with Doug Imig and a group of collaborators, this author examined how European integration has transnationalised domestic policy disputes in the s and earlys Imig and Tarrow eds, All of this shows how varied and progressive were the effects of a seminal work like Keck and Sikkink's ISSJ article, and of their book, Activists beyond borders.
But I cannot end this telescopic review without raising a question that these authors could not have been expected to have answered when they published their work in the late s: I would love to know — two decades after their massive achievement — how Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink would answer this question. Volume 68 , Issue Special Issue: Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Three queries The sign of an enduring work is not only that it makes a splash in a quiescent body of research — as Keck and Sikkink's work surely did in the s — but that it triggers a debate about issues that the work puts on the agenda. What happened when — and why? References Chabot, S. Transnational roots of the civil rights movement: African American explorations of the Gandhian repertoire. Lanham MD.: Lexington Books. Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar.
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