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Not Now Yes, I'm Interested. Content is protected!! Loading Article s , Please Wait. Himachal Pradesh. Date of Formation. Physical characteristics. Natural Vegetation. Major rivers.
Major Regional festivals. Major art forms. Rock salt, limestone, gypsum, silica-sand, and baryte. Geographical indications. State animal. State bird. These laid the base of history and culture of Himachal Pradesh.
The were the most prominent ancient tribes of Himachal who lived in the lower hills between Pathankot and Jwalamukhi. They formed a separate state in 2 B. The state lay in the foothills drained by three rivers, i. Ravi, Beas and Satluj and hence the name. It is believed to have been an independent republic. The kingdom of Kilita was situated in the upper Beas valley which is also known as the Kully valley. Its capital was Naggar. This kingdom covered the area lying between the Beas, Satluj and Yamuna rivers, i.
Their administration resembled a republic with members of a central assembly sharing the powers of the king. Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta extended his boundaries to the Himalyan region. He introduced Buddhism to this tract. He built many stupas one of which is in the Kullu valley. After the collapse of Gupta empire and before the rise of Harsha, this area was again ruled.
With the rise of Harsha in the early 7th century, most of these small states acknowledged his overall supremacy though many local powers remained with the petty chiefs. A few decades after Harsha's death A. They fought amongst themselves and the vanquished moved to the hills with their followers, where they set up small states or principalities. The small hill kingdom enjoyed a large degree of independence till the eve of Muslim invasions in northern India.
States of the foothills were devastated by Muslim invaders from time to time. Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the begining of the 10th centuary. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills and captured several forts and fought many battles. Later on as the Mughal dynasty began to break up; the rulers of the hill states took full advantage. The Katoch rulers of Kangra availed of this opportunity and Kangra regained independence status under Maharaja Sansar Chand who ruled for nearly half a centuary.
He was one of the ablest administrators of the region. After he took formal possession of Kangra fort, Sansar Chand began to expand his territory. After the first Anglo-Sikh war. Satya Dev. During the first World War. Meetings were held in Mandi and Suket states in December and January and it was decided to murder the Superintendent and Wazir of Mandi and Suket. After the Anglo-Gorkha war the common border of the British domain and Punjab became very sensitive.
Both the Sikh and English wanted to avoid a direct conflict. Among them were the rulers of Chamba. Mandi and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule.
Bhagal and Dhami. Sada Ram Chandel. Padam Dev. Freedom Struggle to The people of the hill also participated in the freedom struggle. In when the Sikhs invaded the British territory by crossing the Satluj. The rulers of Bushars acted in a manner hostile to the interests of British. This resulted in the Anglo-Gorkha war. However it is not clear whether they actually aided the rebels or not. Daulat Ram. The Congress party was also active in the freedom movement in the hill state particularly in Kangra.
After this defeat the Gorkhas began to expand towards south. Shivanand Ramaul. Revolt of The revolt or first Indian war of independence resulted due to the building up of political. Mandi and Bilaspur. Important freedom fighters of this state during this period included Dr. However these were directed more against the princes than against the British and as such were mere extensions of freedom movement.
Praja Mandal launched agitations against the British yoke in areas under direct British Rule. The Mandi conspiracy was carried out in under the influence of the Gadhr party. Home Gorkhas. With the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa. The states of Chamba.
Gorkhas laid siege to Kangra. Thus British slowly emerged as the paramount powers in this tract. The highlights of the freedom movement in this tract are listed below: However conspirators were caught and sentenced to long terms in prison. In other princely states agitations were launched for social and political reforms.
Many of these rulers entered into secret communication with the English. They came into direct conflict with the English along the tarai belt after which the English expelled them from the hill states east of the Satluj. Gradually the Gorkhas annexed Sirmour and Shimla hill states. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand. The Pajhota agitation in which the people of a part of Sirmour state revolted is regarded as an extension of the Quit India Movement of They remained more or less aloof and so did their rulers with the exception of Bushahr.
Amongst these were the states of Kangra. Some of them even rendered help to the Britishers during the revolt.
People of the hill states were not politically alive as the people in other parts of the country. Himachal Pradesh has come a long way since then. Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1st July. Thus H. The Chief Commissioner's province of H. Kangra and most of the other hill areas of Punjab were merged with H.
It has seen a number of full-fledged governments which have led the state towards economic self-reliance. On 18th December. Important Details About Himachal Pradesh: Himachal Pradesh became Union Territory on 1st November. Over Chenab and Himurja 9.
Flora and fauna: Snowfall is common in alpine tracts generally above 2. Himachal experiences three seasons: Himalayan rivers crisscross the entire mountain chain. The state has areas like Dharamsala that receive very heavy rainfall. Covering an area of Department Home Studyplan Employment generated Himachal is situated in the western Himalayas. Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.
Winter and rainy season. These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. Winter lasts from late November till mid March. The climate varies from hot and subhumid tropical in the southern tracts to cold. There is great variation in the climatic conditions of Himachal due to extreme variation in elevation.
The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab. Economy The era of planning in Himachal Pradesh started along with the rest of India. Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests grow near treeline.
Sal and shisham are found here. Various deciduous and evergreen oaks live in the broadleaf forests. Year Gross Product State Domestic 7. The southern part of the state. The shrublands and meadows give way to rock and ice around the highest peaks.
Vegetation in the state is dictated by elevation and precipitation.
Home Forest Survey of India report. The Great Himalayan National Park in Kullu district was created to conserve the flora and fauna of the main Himalayan range.
Rising into the hills. Deodar State tree. The uppermost elevations have western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows in the northeast and northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows in the northwest.
Trees are sturdy with a vast network of roots. The rhododendrons can be seen along the hillsides around Shimla from March to May.
Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country with orchards scattered all over the place. Himachal Pradesh has around bird and animal species. These are represented by northwestern thorn scrub forests along the border with Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and by Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests in the far southeast.
West Himalayan Spruce. After the winter season. Meadows and pastures are also seen clinging to steep slopes. The state government is gearing up to make Himachal Pradesh as the flower basket of the world. It is the main source of income and employment in Himachal. It has been estimated that about Fruit cultivation has also proved to be an economic boon.
Fruit of all cultivation does not add to the problem of soil erosion and its employment potential is more than conventional farming. As per the current prices.