General health questionnaire pdf


Items 1 - 7 Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record. Publication Hillier's item scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. (GHQ) has. The Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is the most extensively used . Spanish general adult population, using a Likert-type scoring. To assess . We should like to know if you have any medical complaints, and how your health has been in general, over the past few weeks. Please answer ALL the.

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General Health Questionnaire Pdf

Items 22 - 28 The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is a screening device for identifying minor psychiatric . Can Likert scoring be converted to GHQ scoring?. GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE - (David Goldberg and Hiller, ). Please read this carefully. We should like to know if you had any medical. MALAY VERSION ITEMS GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE. (GHQ) IN scoring method (with the two least symptomatic answers scoring 0 and the.

Background The General Health Questionnaire GHQ is a measure of current mental health and since its development by Goldberg in the s it has been extensively used in different settings and different cultures [ 1 — 5 ]. The scale asks whether the respondent has experienced a particular symptom or behavior recently. Each item is rated on a four-point scale less than usual, no more than usual, rather more than usual, or much more than usual ; and for example when using the GHQ it gives a total score of 36 or 12 based on the selected scoring methods. The most common scoring methods are bi-modal and Likert scoring styles Since the GHQ is a brief, simple, easy to complete, and its application in research settings as a screening tool is well documented; it was decided to translate the GHQ into Persian the Iranian language and to examine the psychometric properties of the questionnaire in a sample of young Iranian adolescents.

On the contrary, they may experience stress which is resulted from academic workload and extreme pressure for success, making them even prone to experience mental disturbances Sherina et al.

Therefore, it appears necessary for students to be in their good and balanced psychological health in order to excel in their pursuit and for a successful future by contributing positively towards human capital resources of the country.

Psychological health, as measured in the present study, is defined as a state of being in which a student is balanced both emotionally and intellectually. A psychologically healthy student is capable of thinking clearly, developing socially and learning new skills with ease. However, as students are at a crucial stage of development, they are more prone to experience mental illnesses in the transition from being an adolescent to an adult Giugliano, Reports on cases of young adults suffering from mental illness have made the issue a national concern in Malaysia.

In , the 3rd National Health and Morbidity Survey, conducted by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, reported that more teenagers between the ages of 16 to 19 years old were found to experience mental health problems compared to other age groups investigated in the same survey Anon, Moreover, in another study conducted by the same Ministry, a considerable proportion of adolescents were also reported to suffer from mental illness Anon, The Ministry reported that out of , individuals treated for mental illness in , For the purpose of the present study, the GHQ was chosen as a screening tool for psychological problems faced by college students in Malaysia.

The accessible population for the present study was the students of Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. It is worth mentioning that the GHQ is extensively used by researchers and has been found to be reliable and well-validated Goldberg et al.

The GHQ was originally designed to be used in adult populations. The original version of the GHQ contains 60 items and is known for its multi-dimensional aspects. The GHQ is the shortest version and commonly used as a screening tool in a public setting.

It is usually regarded as testing only a single dimension of psychological health Gao et al. However, some previous research have shown that the GHQ has two e. Cheung, ; Picardi et al. The present study was primarily designed to determine the psychological health of a group of undergraduate students studying at Universiti Putra Malaysia. The study also aimed to determine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ As adolescents are prone to experiencing psychological disturbances during the crucial college education period, it is therefore interesting to explore how the young generation from a developing country, like Malaysia, cope with the academic pressures and societal demands.

Scaled General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28)

Furthermore, data on the mental health status of Malaysians are mostly accessible from hospitals or teaching institutions, where clinical trials are usually conducted Deva, Method 2. Given the natural grouping, i. The estimated sample size required for the study was in order to obtain a confidence interval level of.

Thus, the respondents recruited for the present study were considered as sufficient enough for generalization to be made to the theoretical population of young adults in the university setting in Malaysia. Prior to data collection, permission was obtained from the relevant authorities at Universiti Putra Malaysia and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia.

Enclosed in the packet for the students was a cover sheet explaining the purpose of the study, the structure and instructions for the 74 Global Journal of Health Science Vol. The questionnaire was also pre-tested on a sample of undergraduates who were randomly selected.

However, they were not included as the respondents in the present study. The purpose of the pre-testing was to determine the appropriateness of the questionnaire for the target respondents. The translators are fluent in both English and Malay.

The translation procedure was conducted several times until an agreement was reached for the final Malay version. Nonetheless, the researchers finally decided to present the item GHQ in the questionnaire in both English and Malay to the respondents, as both languages are commonly used by most Malaysian students. The GHQ is a screening tool which was used to identify the severity of psychological distress experienced by an individual within the past few weeks.

28-Item General Health Questionnaire

This scale focuses on breaks in normal functioning rather than on life-long traits; therefore, it only covers disorders or patterns of adjustment associated with distress. The scores were summed up by adding all the items on the scale ranging from 0 to Some examples of the items in the GHQ are: 1 Been able to concentrate on whatever you are doing; 2 Lost much sleep over worry; 3 Felt constantly under strain; and 4 Been losing self-confidence in yourself.

The totals, means, standard deviation, along with the minimum and maximum scores on the GHQ, were calculated. Thus, the independent t-test analysis was also performed to determine if the GHQ scores would vary across the two genders. Reliability is also a matter of whatever technique is used and applied repeatedly to the same object, it will yield the same result each time Babbie, A coefficient value between 0.

Tung-Xiung stated that a psychological scale with an alpha value higher than 0. In addition, the factor analysis was done to identify a small number of factors in a larger number of manifest variables. Thus, the minimum sample size required is cases in order to determine the reliability of the factor analysis Field, The present study had a sample of more than students and this was deemed adequate to conduct factor analysis.

Subsequently, the factor structure of the GHQ was obtained by performing a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. The number of factors was determined by the Eigenvalue greater than 1. According to 75 Global Journal of Health Science www. Any values of loading, greater than 0. The present study suppressed all the value loadings to less than 0.

The principle component analysis with varimax rotation yielded results on the factor loading values, variances, communalities and variance percentage. The variables were grouped according to the loading size and they were arranged from high to low value. Results 3. A larger proportion of the respondents were found to be males The study noted that the students registered for an average of 17 Sd.

Using the cut-off point of 6, the study revealed that These findings seem to indicate that the proportion of the students who are psychologically healthy was just slightly higher than those who were vulnerable to develop and experience psychological problems.

For the GHQ, the scoring method is used to sum up the points to a total score ranging between 0 and 12, with a higher score indicating poorer mental health. For the SUBI, the three responses on each item are scored , with the points summed to a total score ranging between 9 and 27, with a higher score indicating poorer well-being.


Methods Cronbach's alpha was calculated to analyze internal consistency. It ranges from 0 to 1. A value of 0. The normal alpha is appropriate when items on a scale are summed to produce a single score for that scale.

Factor analysis was applied to explore factor structure of GHQ The adequacy of the correlation matrix of the GHQ item was checked, and it was observed that there was a strong and statistically significant correlation between the variables 0.

The principle component extraction method was adopted as it is suggested in establishing preliminary solutions in exploratory factor analysis.

The initial un-rotated solution suggested some items load onto more than one factors. To obtain a more interpretable and simplified solution, the orthogonal varimax rotation was chosen to test any diverse underlying structures in GHQ items.

Then, the correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the external validity of the GHQ score as a whole and in terms of the individual factors. Results A mean GHQ score of 3. The mean score varies across states, with the lowest score 1. The other five states score in between — Himachal Pradesh 2.

Internal consistency [Table 1] shows the results of the reliability analysis. The values in the column labeled "Adjusted item-scale correlation" are the correlations between each item and the total score from the questionnaire.

A linear transformation was performed to standardize the row scores. Scores range from 0 to and the higher value indicates a higher level of global quality of life [ 8 ]. To test the reliability, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient and alpha equal to or greater than 0.


Validity was performed using convergent validity to demonstrate the extent to which the GHQ correlates with global quality of life. It was expected that the GHQ would correlate negatively with global quality of life.

Furthermore the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing principal component analysis using oblique factor solution. The study used Goldberg's original scoring method. In this method response categories score 0, 0, 1, and 1 respectively. This gives scores ranging from 0 to 12 [ 10 ].

Results Descriptive findings In all young people aged 18 to 25 years entered into the study.

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