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Michael J. Moran | Howard N. Shapiro | Daisie D. Boettner | Margaret B. Bailey FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Eighth Edition How. ebook download: fundamentals of thermodynamics sonntag 8th solution ev pdf enligne fundamentals of thermodynamics sonntag. eBook free PDF download on Fundamentals of Thermodynamics by Claus Borgnakke and Sonntag. Book download link provided by.
An isolated system is a closed system that does not interact in any way with its surroundings. State, Property The condition of a system at any instant of time is called its state. The state at a given instant of time is described by the properties of the system. A property is any quantity whose numerical value depends on the state but not the history of the system. The value of a property is determined in principle by some type of physical operation or test.
Extensive properties depend on the size or extent of the system. Volume, mass, energy, and entropy are examples of extensive properties. An extensive property is additive in the sense that its value for the whole system equals the sum of the values for its parts. Intensive properties are independent of the size or extent of the system. Pressure and temperature are examples of intensive properties.
A mole is a quantity of substance having a mass numerically equal to its molecular weight. When an extensive property is reported on a unit mass or a unit mole basis, it is called a specific property. An overbar is used to distinguish an extensive property written on a per-mole basis from its value expressed per unit mass.
Process, Cycle Two states are identical if, and only if, the properties of the two states are identical. When any property of a system changes in value there is a change in state, and the system is said to undergo a process.
When a system in a given initial state goes through a sequence of processes and finally returns to its initial state, it is said to have undergone a cycle. Phase and Pure Substance The term phase refers to a quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both chemical compo- sition and physical structure.
Homogeneity in physical structure means that the matter is all solid, or all liquid , or all vapor or equivalently all gas. A system can contain one or more phases.
A pure substance is one that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition. A pure substance can exist in more than one phase, but its chemical composition must be the same in each phase.
For example, if liquid water and water vapor form a system with two phases, the system can be regarded as a pure substance because each phase has the same composition.
The nature of phases that coexist in equilibrium is addressed by the phase rule Section 2. Equilibrium Equilibrium means a condition of balance. In thermodynamics the concept includes not only a balance of forces, but also a balance of other influences. Each kind of influence refers to a particular aspect of thermodynamic complete equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium refers to an equality of temperature, mechanical equilibrium to an equality of pressure, and phase equilibrium to an equality of chemical potentials Section 2.
Chemical equilibrium is also established in terms of chemical potentials Section 2.
For complete equilibrium the several types of equilibrium must exist individually. To determine if a system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, one may think of testing it as follows: isolate the system from its surroundings and watch for changes in its observable properties. If there are no changes, it may be concluded that the system was in equilibrium at the moment it was isolated. The system can be said to be at an equilibrium state. When a system is isolated, it cannot interact with its surroundings; however, its state can change as a consequence of spontaneous events occurring internally as its intensive properties, such as temperature and pressure, tend toward uniform values.
When all such changes cease, the system is in equilibrium. At equilibrium.
If gravity is significant, a pressure variation with height can exist, as in a vertical column of liquid. Temperature A scale of temperature independent of the thermometric substance is called a thermodynamic temperature scale.
The Kelvin scale, a thermodynamic scale, can be elicited from the second law of thermodynamics Section 2. The definition of temperature following from the second law is valid over all temperature ranges and provides an essential connection between the several empirical measures of temperature.
In particular, temperatures evaluated using a constant- volume gas thermometer are identical to those of the Kelvin scale over the range of temperatures where gas thermometry can be used. The empirical gas scale is based on the experimental observations that 1 at a given temperature level all gases exhibit the same value of the product p is pressure and the specific volume on a molar basis if the pressure is low enough, and 2 the value of the product increases with the temperature level.
On this basis the gas temperature scale is defined by where T is temperature andis the universal gas constant.
The absolute temperature at the triple point of water Section 2. Thus, temperature differences are identical on both scales.
Phase transitions. Chemical reactions. Reaction equilibrium. Steady-state Thermodynamics. Chemical reactions as irreversible processes. The postulates of steady-state thermodynamics.
Coupled linear steady states. Entropy production in the steady state. The pivotal functions. Matter and heat flow. The quantities of transport. Uses of the heat of transport. Minimum entropy production. Exact and inexact differentials. The Legendre transformation.
The fundamental equation of the ideal gas. The equation of state of the ideal rubber. Positive definiteness of a quadratic form. Heat conduction at the system boundaries. List of symbols. Author and subject index. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.
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