[e.g. supernovae, galaxy clustering]. • This model invokes 3 new pieces of physics: inflation, dark matter and dark energy ouse pointer over the thumbnails on. PDF | Observations continue to indicate that the Universe is dominated by invisible components - dark matter and dark energy. Shedding light on this cosmic. Abstract: The nature of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) which is supposed to constitute about 95% of the energy density of the universe is still a mystery.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
ASP Conference Series, Vol. , B. K. Gibson, T. S. Axelrod and M. E. Putman (eds.) Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. Michael S. Turner. 1. (narrowing the options). ▷ What is dark energy? ▻ How space-time curves. ▻ Expansion of the universe. ▻ Accelerating expansion: what is it. the expansion of the universe, its increase with the distance, dark matter, dark energy, and . distance, and the existence of dark matter and energy. In this paper load from ruthenpress.info  D. F.
Light follows the curvature of spacetime, resulting in the lensing effect. In particular, in the early universe, ordinary matter was ionized and interacted strongly with radiation via Thomson scattering.
Dark matter does not interact directly with radiation, but it does affect the CMB by its gravitational potential mainly on large scales , and by its effects on the density and velocity of ordinary matter. Ordinary and dark matter perturbations, therefore, evolve differently with time and leave different imprints on the cosmic microwave background CMB.
The cosmic microwave background is very close to a perfect blackbody but contains very small temperature anisotropies of a few parts in , A sky map of anisotropies can be decomposed into an angular power spectrum, which is observed to contain a series of acoustic peaks at near-equal spacing but different heights.
The series of peaks can be predicted for any assumed set of cosmological parameters by modern computer codes such as CMBFast and CAMB, and matching theory to data, therefore, constrains cosmological parameters. After the discovery of the first acoustic peak by the balloon-borne BOOMERanG experiment in , the power spectrum was precisely observed by WMAP in —12, and even more precisely by the Planck spacecraft in — The results support the Lambda-CDM model.
Prior to structure formation, the Friedmann solutions to general relativity describe a homogeneous universe. Later, small anisotropies gradually grew and condensed the homogeneous universe into stars, galaxies and larger structures.
Ordinary matter is affected by radiation, which is the dominant element of the universe at very early times. As a result, its density perturbations are washed out and unable to condense into structure.
Dark matter provides a solution to this problem because it is unaffected by radiation. We may call it inferred inertial mass Inflation requires that 1 in the big bang universe, and which is which can be of two forms: 1. Inferred inertial mass of the virtual indeed observed, but which requires that dark energy and dark particles of the false vacuum, which is driving the accelerating matter be present.
It is here shown that the presence of dark ener- expansion of the inflationary universe; inferred inertial mass gy and dark matter in the big bang universe can be traced back to would be consistent with the fact that virtual particles are not clas- the contents of the inflationary universe.
Inferred inertial mass which is piggybacking It is proposed that the inflationary universe contains inferred iner- on the accelerating expansion of the inflationary universe. When inflation ends, inferred inertial mass of a is in cosmological freefall, due to the cosmologicalization of the portion of the virtual particles converts into inertial mass of real weak principle of equivalence, and the cosmological freefall is particles, i.
The proposi- made possible because of the accelerating expansion of the uni- tion of the cosmologicalization of the principle of equivalence verse, due to the cosmologicalization of the principle of equiva- requires that the inertial mass of visible matter be in a spacetime lence, involving the inertial mass of objects.
In the inflationary accelerating frame of reference, which is responsible for the late- universe, its accelerating expansion is driven by virtual particles, time accelerating expansion of the universe.
When inflation inertial mass of another form, which piggyback on the accelerating ends, the inferred inertial mass in cosmological freefall converts expansion, and which may therefore be considered to be in cosmo- into dark matter in the big bang universe, which is proposed to be logical freefall. Since impressional principle of equivalence.
We may go a step further and a portion of inferred inertial mass that drives the accelerating ex- state that not only are impressional inertial mass objects in a local- pansion of the inflationary universe, while it is the something- ly inertial frame of reference, but that impressional inertial mass ness of inertial mass of visible matter that drives the late-time objects are themselves locally-inertial-frame-of-reference objects accelerating expansion of the big bang universe.
Physical Review Letters 48 17 , Physical Review D 23 2 , Journal of Modern Physics 6, Inter- national Journal of Astronomy 3 18 , Physics Letters B B 6 , Physics Letters B, Apart from the large time scale over which the expansion would be exponential, and unless there is some fundamental constraint of a minimum e-folding time, such a universe would be dynamically indistinguishable from an infla- tionary universe.
Now according to present proposition, because the expansion is almost exponential in the inflationary universe, inertial mass can- not manifest directly its presence can only be inferred. At that point the big bang universe would therefore be not only dynamically but also constitutively indistinguishable from an inflationary universe.
Such a transition into an inflationary universe could also allow its rate of expansion to be a free parameter, and it may expand at an inflationary rate. First, the science. For instance, there just seems to be not enough visible matter around to explain the way galaxies rotate.
When scientists add up all the mass in stars in a galaxy they can see with their telescopes, it ends up to be much less than the mass they calculate using Newton's laws. To account for the discrepancy, they have to assume there is also some weird matter out there that we can't see although we can observe its gravitational effects , for instance the way it distorts the image of a faraway galaxy akin to a giant lens — the notorious dark matter.
Read next The hot, dangerous physics of fighting the Notre Dame fire By Nicole Kobie But so far — despite our best efforts and numerous experiments — we have not been able to get even a glimpse of what dark matter might be. The universe is expanding, and this expansion is accelerating.
To explain this accelerated expansion , scientists have to resort to an even more enigmatic substance: dark energy. But the general scientific consensus is that it must be there. So how does our universe fit together?
Enter alternative theories of gravity, where scientists tweak certain parameters to make it work. However, more often than not, not everything in these alternative theories quite adds up, and as we constantly find out more about the universe, whenever there is some new observational evidence, many of these alternative gravity theories die a quick death. He modifies the equations of the most widely accepted theory of gravity - Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Most researchers use them, as well as accepting the existence of dark matter and dark energy, to explain the way the universe works.