WIND ENERGY. EXPLAINED. Theory, Design and Application. Second Edition. J. F. Manwell and J. G. McGowan. Department of Mechanical and Industrial. Wind energy's bestselling textbook- fully revised. This must-have second edition includes up-to-date data, diagrams, illustrations and thorough. View Table of Contents for Wind Energy Explained. Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. Author(s). J.F. Manwell · J.G.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Manwell, J. F. Wind energy explained: theory, design, and application / James Manwell, Jon McGowan. Wind energy explained: Theory, Design, and application [Book Review]. Article ( PDF Available) in IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 1(6) 51 · December with 4, Reads by J.F. Manwell, J.G. McGowan, and. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Wind energy explained: theory, design, and application / James Manwell, Jon McGowan, Anthony Rogers .
In modern stand-alone hybrid-systems a direct-driven version of PMSG is the prevailing choice of wind turbine, because it does not require an external DC current for excitation.
Problems to keep frequency at 50 Hz during low wind velocities are avoided by modern construction concepts with a large number of poles . The diesel generator should be supplied with a syncronous generator. A first order modell with a single time constant can be chosen.
The single time constant describes the ratio between fuel consumption and mechanical torque production. The action of the speed governor is controlled by an integral controller gain .
Medical centers are an example for high-priority loads, while economic and agricultural loads can be labeled as medium-priority loads. Finally domestic supply can be considered as a low priority load in most cases under the assumption, that electricity is a scarce resource. By categorizing the prevailing loads and collecting information about the distribution of these loads during the day the project developer creates the base for choosing the size of the system components.
Resource assessment: The distribution of the wind velocities at the proposed sites has to be analyzed.
Designing a system which covers these loads by RES-sources or storage means the system is generally based on wind energy with the diesel generator as additional or back-up energy source.
This operation strategy assures, that a great amount of fuel can be safed, which is important for gaining indepence from high fuel prices and variability. Using the value of the high-priority load P, the basic wind energy function can be used for calculation of the rotor diameter of the wind turbine, provided that all other variables in the function are known.
Conditions at the site must be checked: Is it possible to install such a wind turbine on this site at a height with an appropriate wind speed? The storage systems consist of a battery bank, a bi-directional power electronic converter and a current limiting impedance. It can be considered as a management tool between fluctuating loads, wind energy production and the efficient utilization of the diesel engine.
The charging-discharging rates of the battery technology chosen should be able to cope with these tasks in the system.
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First published: Statistical calculus is used widely in wind resource assessments; therefore, it is necessary to reduce the sources of uncertainty to obtain reliable assessments [ 7 ]. One source of uncertainty is the error associated with the wind speed measurement process, but it is not possible to analyze its effect on wind power production.
This information is lost after the arithmetic mean is calculated to construct the mean ensemble, which limits the dispersion concept to the standard deviation for each mean calculated over time.
This mean ensemble and the consequent dispersion concept assume that the wind speed with time can be represented by a normal distribution, which is not necessarily true. Several studies have aimed to detect and reduce the sources of uncertainty. Probability distribution models for wind resource variability have been studied [ 8 ] and a state of the art method for resource assessment was proposed [ 9 ].
To obtain reliable assessments, several techniques are used to measure wind speed, which may complement each other, but no previous studies have considered the quality of the measure employed for power output estimation. Previously, it was demonstrated that because a longer time is used to obtain the mean ensemble, then the parameters that define the PDF may also change [ 10 ].
The reliability of the power assessment depends on the accuracy of the PDF parameters because they represent the wind speed conditions. However, it is not always easy to obtain accurate estimates due to the limited availability of the data [ 11 ], as well as the wide variety of PDFs that can be fitted [ 12 , 13 ].
A previous study considered the influence of the measurement quality on resource assessments [ 14 ], but it was assumed that the wind speed mean ensemble follows a normal distribution. In previous research, a wide range of PDFs have been used to represent wind speed conditions around the world [ 12 , 13 ], some of which were represented as bimodal probabilistic models [ 15 ]. In terms of the sources of uncertainty related to the goodness-of-fit of the PDFs that represent the wind speed conditions, several studies have aimed to determine how well the wind speed data are represented in specific conditions and locations by different PDFs [ 16 — 19 ].
As well as, to obtain reliable resource assessments [ 10 , 12 ]. However, due to the variable characteristics of the wind speed sampling method, it is impossible to analyze the influence of the error attributable to the meteorological device on the power resource assessment.
Achieving the goal of reliable resource assessments is not an easy task because the process involves several sources of uncertainty, which are related to physical variables and the statistical process used for power estimation.