Curriculum Development in Language Teaching (Cambridge Language Education). Home · Curriculum Views 14MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF. Jack C. Richards, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization ( SEAMEO) Regional Language Centre (RELC), Singapore. Publisher: Cambridge . Curriculum development in language teaching / Jack C. Richards. p. cm. ISBN 0- 1. Language and languages - Study and teaching. 2. Curriculum.
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BOOK REVIEW: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Jack C. Richards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xiv + pp. Volume 33 No 2. English Australia Journal. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching (2nd Ed.) Jack C. Richards. Cambridge University Press, Curriculum development in language teaching can start from input, process or .. ruthenpress.info).
References 1. In Teaching and learning Chinese in global context.
Edited by: Tsung L, Cruickshank K. New York: Continuum; Google Scholar 2. In Teaching and learning Chinese for Non-Chinese speaking students.
Google Scholar 3. Nunan D: The learner-centred curriculum: A study in second language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; To him, a fully centralized curriculum which is devised in a centralized location and then disseminated to a wide range of learning institutions does not take the local factors into account. Most of these scholars stress the need to help learners to personalize, localize and make meaningful their experience of the target language, as well as the need for materials to be affectively engaging and cater for all learning style preferences.
Gross cited in Tomlinson claims that we can accelerate and enrich our learning, by engaging the senses, emotions, imagination. Canagarajah cited in Tomlinson gives examples of the re-writing of textbook comprehension questions so as to elicit localized and personalized responses. Tomlinson , p. Hansen , p. Masuhara and Tomlinson , , advocate and illustrate multidimensional approaches to language learning in which learners are encouraged to make use of sensory imagery, motor imagery, inner speech, associations, connections and emotions in order to personalize their language-learning experience.
Many articles have criticized commercially published course books for being not humanistic.
According to Tomlinson , p. In fact, they have to make sure that their content and approach is not unsuitable for any type of learner, that their choice of topics and texts does not disadvantage any learners. Masuhara et al. Tomlinson , , state that in order to humanize a published course book is for the teacher to replace sections of it with more humanistic materials which involve the learners in gaining and reflecting on experience or the teacher can adapt the course book by adding activities which invite the learners to think, feel, and do as intelligent human beings.
In fact; teachers needs to personalize and localize the materials and to relate them in different ways to needs and learning style preferences of individual learners.
This can help to achieve the relevance and connectivity found to promote language acquisition, to help learners to relate the materials to previous experience and to facilitate the use of mental imaging and inner speech.
Critical appraisal Few scholars have criticized humanized curriculum.
They continued to say that humanists are not concerned enough about the experiences of the individual students in the classroom because although they say that curriculum is individualistic, every student in a given classroom is actually exposed to the same stimuli. Second, those learners who are learning based on a localized and more culturally relevant curriculum may not be successful in a different social and economic situation.
In fact, he may not cope with life in multicultural situations. Concluding remarks To conclude, according to Curtis , p. Curtis adds that a humanistic curriculum demands an emotional relationship between students and teacher. The teacher must provide warmth and nurture emotion while continuing to function as a resource center. He or she should present materials and create challenging situations to facilitate learning. References Apple, M.
Ideology and curriculum. New York: Routledge. Burke, C. Resisting erasure: Cultivating opportunities for a humanizing curriculum. Multicultural Perspectives, 10 2 , What is a humanizing curriculum.
Paper presented at American association of school administrators annual convention, New Jersey, February Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53, — Gilchrist, R. Curriculum development.
A humanized system approach. Humanistic psychology. Theoretical and philosophical framework and implications for teaching. Treffinger, J.
Ripple Eds. It was aimed at reviewing and developing national language teaching curriculum based on a curriculum development perspective. For example, Lim in Richards states that curriculum development includes needs analysis, goal setting, syllabus design, material design, language program design, teacher preparation, implementation of program in schools, monitoring, feedback and evaluation. Tyler in Richards, stated four fundamental questions that must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction as follows.
What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? The four questions reduced to a simpler model described below. Tyler model of curriculum development raised a number of objections.
One of critics to Tyler model was proposed by Nicholls and Nicholls in Richards Nicholls and Nicholls describe curriculum development in four stages as follows. The careful examination, drawing on all available sources of knowledge and informed judgments, of the objectives of teaching, whether in particular subject courses or over the curriculum as a whole.
The development and trial use in schools of those methods and materials which are judged most likely to achieve the objectives which teachers agreed upon. The assessment of the extent to which the development work has in fact achieved its objectives.
This part of the process may be expected to provoke new thought about the objectives themselves. The final element is therefore feedback of all the experience gained, to provide starting point for further study.
Actually, the two models proposed contain almost similar elements. Aims and objectives stated in Tyler model can be interpreted as the first stage in Nicholls and Nicholls. The careful examination in Nicholls and Nicholls stage is directed toward determining objectives as well. The assessment and feedback that are used in Nicholls and Nicholls model are resembled with evaluation proposed by Tyler.
The different between these two models is the absence of organization in Nicholls and Nicholls model. To substitute the organization element, Nicholls and Nicholls proposed the development and trial of methods and materials used to achieve objectives. The Problems of English Curriculum and Syllabus Design in Electronic Engineering Study Program The development of curriculum and syllabus is required since it is made to meet the demand of the needs and situation, the development of science and technology, the global trend and the requirements of stakeholders.
State Polytechnic of Malang is a vocational education institution that also put English as one of courses that must be taken. Electronic Engineering is a study program in Electro department. In Electronic Engineering English is taught in four semesters and it has one credit. It is given in the second until fifth semester and it is taught once a week with 90 minutes per meeting.
The curriculum demands that Electronic Engineering students must be able to communicate in English both oral and written. Another demand is students must pass Polytechnic English Competence Test that is held every year for third grade students.
However, the demands of curriculum are not fulfilled by the English syllabus created by lectures. Lectures tend to create grammatical syllabus that contain grammar material only. The facts stated above make it difficult for students to reach the goals as required by the curriculum.
These later cause students to be fail in doing job interview or after they work in the companies. Most stakeholders, in this case the companies that accept the alumni of Electronic Engineering study programs, complain that they do not have good speaking and writing ability. The low ability is caused by the fact that the syllabus design does not support the teaching of the two abilities needed.
Since the curriculum is implemented, the duration of English is reduced.
This certainly brings a lot of disadvantages mainly for students. Usually, English V-in this case English that is given in fifth semester- contains about how to perform job interview and how to write good application letters.
The deletion of English V causes students to lose time to practice their English to prepare job interview and to enter the job world.